Abstract and Introduction
COVID-19 vaccine booster doses provide enhanced protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection, emergency department visits, hospitalization, and death.[1–3] As of May 19, 2022, all fully vaccinated persons aged ≥5 years are recommended to receive a booster dose when eligible; selected populations, as determined by age and immunocompromise status, are also eligible for a second booster or an additional dose to complete a primary COVID-19 vaccination series. Data on COVID-19 vaccine doses administered during August 13, 2021–August 5, 2022, and submitted to CDC from 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) were analyzed to assess booster and second booster vaccination coverage among eligible populations, by age group, sex, race and ethnicity, urban-rural classification, and the primary series vaccine product received. For this analysis, primary series completion was defined as receipt of 2 mRNA (i.e., mRNA-1273 [Moderna] or BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech]) COVID-19 vaccine doses or 1 Ad26.COV.S (Janssen [Johnson & Johnson]) COVID-19 vaccine dose because data were not available to identify immunocompromised persons who might have received an additional primary dose. Among 214.4 million eligible persons aged ≥5 years, 106.3 million (49.6%) received a booster dose, and booster dose coverage increased with age. Booster dose coverage was lowest for children, adolescents, and adults aged 18–39 years; males; non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black), Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic), and multiracial persons; residents of rural counties; and Janssen primary series recipients. Among 58.8 million eligible first booster dose recipients aged ≥50 years, 20.0 million (34.0%) received a second booster dose. Second booster dose coverage was lowest among persons aged 50–64 years; males; Hispanic, Black, and multiracial persons; residents of rural counties; and Janssen primary series recipients. Interventions focused on improving public health communication and outreach to populations with low booster and second booster dose vaccination coverage should be developed to increase access to COVID-19 vaccines and ensure that all persons can benefit from the increased protection conferred by COVID-19 vaccine booster doses.
On August 13, 2021, CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended that moderately or severely immunocompromised persons receive an additional dose to complete a primary series of Moderna (persons aged ≥18 years) or Pfizer-BioNTech (persons aged ≥12 years) COVID-19 vaccine (Supplementary Table, https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/120701). On September 24, and October 21, 2021, a COVID-19 booster dose was recommended for selected populations aged ≥18 years,* and then recommended for all persons aged ≥18 years on November 19, 2021. On December 9, 2021, January 5, 2022, and May 19, 2022, booster dose recommendations were expanded to Pfizer-BioNTech recipients aged 16–17, 12–15, and 5–11 years, respectively. In addition, selected populations, including all persons aged ≥50 years and moderately or severely immunocompromised persons aged ≥12 years, became eligible to receive a second COVID-19 booster dose on March 29, 2022.
Data on COVID-19 vaccine administration in the United States are reported to CDC by jurisdictions, pharmacies, and federal entities.† COVID-19 vaccine doses administered during August 13, 2021–August 5, 2022, among persons aged ≥5 years in 50 states (excluding persons aged <18 years in Idaho)§ and DC, were analyzed to assess booster and second booster dose vaccination coverage by age group, sex, race and ethnicity, urban-rural classification,¶ and the primary series vaccine product received. Booster dose vaccination coverage was calculated among persons who completed a primary series** of Moderna, Pfizer-BioNTech, or Janssen COVID-19 vaccine and were eligible to receive a booster dose by the end of the analysis period.†† Persons who received 2 mRNA COVID-19 doses or 1 Janssen COVID-19 dose were defined as having completed a primary series because data to identify persons who might have received an additional primary dose were not available. A booster dose was defined as a homologous or heterologous dose of COVID-19 vaccine administered ≥4 weeks§§ after completion of a primary series. A second booster dose was defined as a homologous or heterologous dose of COVID-19 vaccine administered ≥3 months (mRNA primary series recipients) or ≥2 months (Janssen recipients) after receipt of the first booster dose.
Information on recipient race and ethnicity was available for 73.6% of the eligible population. Analyses were conducted using SQL Server Management Studio (version 18; Microsoft) and SAS software (version 9.4; SAS Institute). Tests for statistical significance were not conducted because these data are reflective of the U.S. population aged ≥5 years¶¶ and were not based on probability population samples. This activity was reviewed by CDC and was conducted consistent with applicable federal law and CDC policy.***
As of August 5, 2022, 214.4 million persons aged ≥5 years (68.6% of the U.S. population aged ≥5 years)††† were eligible to receive a booster dose. Among this population, 106.3 million (49.6%) received a booster dose (Table 1). Booster coverage increased with age, ranging from 15.6% among children aged 5–11 years to 69.5% among adults aged ≥65 years. Booster coverage was lower among males (47.3%) than among females (51.9%), and the coverage difference between males and females was largest among persons aged 18–39 years (6 percentage points). Overall, booster coverage varied by race and ethnicity, ranging from 37.3% among Hispanic persons to 58.5% among non-Hispanic Asian persons. When stratified by age group, the lowest booster dose coverage among persons aged 5–39 years was among Black persons (range = 9.8%–27.9%), and among those aged ≥40 years, coverage was lowest among Hispanic (range = 45.4%–64.0%) and multiracial (range = 45.7%–62.7%) persons. Booster dose coverage was lower in persons living in rural counties (micropolitan and noncore) (48.5%) than among urban residents (50.3%), although coverage differences by urban-rural classification were smaller among older adults. Among persons aged ≥18 years, booster coverage among Janssen, Moderna, and Pfizer-BioNTech primary series recipients was 34.8%, 56.3%, and 51.9%, respectively.
Among 58.8 million persons aged ≥50 years who were eligible to receive a second booster dose, 20.0 million (34.0%) received a second booster by August 5, 2022 (Table 2). Second booster dose coverage increased with age, ranging from 26.1% among persons aged 50–64 years to 41.4% among those aged ≥75 years. Second booster dose coverage was lowest among males, Hispanic and Black persons, persons living in rural counties, and Janssen primary series recipients.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2022;71(35):1121-1125. © 2022 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)