The Multispecialty Toxin: A Literature Review of Botulinum Toxin

Karen Bach, BS; Richard Simman, MD, FACS, FACCWS


Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2022;10(4):e4228 

In This Article


The clinical applications of BoNT are extensive as it is used across different medical specialties. The prevention of acetylcholine release at cholinergic junctions makes BoNT effective in the treatment and management of numerous conditions characterized by hyperactivity of muscles and glands. It is important to note that this is not an exhaustive review and that many of the conditions described are not mutually exclusive to any one particular specialty. The main purpose of this review is to provide a brief updated overview of the history, mechanism of action, and most common clinical applications of BoNT therapy across multiple medical specialties, including their complications and recommended Botox dosages.