Reflections on a Specialist HIV Menopause Service

Experiences of Managing Menopause in Women Living With HIV

Mimie Chirwa; Neda Taghinejadi; Gabrielle Macaulay; Sundhiya Mandalia; Claire Bellone; Nicholas Panay; Roberta Brum; Nneka Nwokolo


HIV Medicine. 2022;23(4):426-433. 

In This Article


We carried out a retrospective case note review of women attending the HIV menopause clinic from 1 January 2015 to 19 July 2018.

Menopause was defined as amenorrhoea for > 12 months in the absence of other known causes. Perimenopause is defined as the transition period where menopausal symptoms and menstrual irregularities start and concludes 12 months after the last menstrual period. Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) was defined as menopause occurring before the age of 40 years, and early menopause as menopause occurring between the age of 40 and 45. Surgical menopause refers to the removal of both ovaries (bilateral oophorectomy) before biological menopause.

Data on patient demographics, HIV history (duration of infection, nadir CD4 count, previous AIDS diagnosis, last CD4 count, viral load, current ART regimen and adherence), comorbidities, smoking history, reproductive health, cervical screening history, menopausal status, menopausal symptoms and management, including adverse events on MHT, any modifications of ART and bone mineral density (BMD) results, were collected.

The data were populated in Excel and analysed using R-studio. Univariate logistic regression models were used to look at associations between patient characteristics and early menopause. Univariate analysis was used to compare patient characteristics with early menopause and response to MHT.