Childhood Food Allergy, Allergen Sensitisation and Airway Diseases in Adulthood

Pavankumar Kamat

Disclosures

August 05, 2021

Takeaway

  • Childhood food allergy (FA) and food allergen sensitisation (FAS) were associated with an increased risk of asthma during adulthood.

  • Childhood FAS, but not FA, was associated with an increased risk of rhinitis in adulthood.

Why this matters

  • Clinicians should follow-up children with FA and FAS to facilitate early detection and treatment of subsequent allergic airway diseases (AADs), especially asthma.

Study design

  • A longitudinal study included 1456 children who were born between January 1989 and February 1990, identified from the Isle of Wight (IOW) birth cohort study.

  • All children were followed up at fixed time points from ages 1 to 26 years for FA and FAS status.

  • AADs were assessed from 4 years onwards.

  • Funding: National Institutes of Health and others.

Key results

  • FA at 4 years was significantly associated with an increased risk of asthma at (adjusted OR [aOR]; 95% CI):

    • 18 years (2.75; 1.53-4.92; P=.001); and

    • 26 years (2.62; 1.32-5.20; P=.006).

  • FAS in symptomatic infants at 1 or 2 years was associated with an increased risk of asthma at (aOR; 95% CI):

    • 18 years (4.35; 1.74-10.87; P=.002); and

    • 26 years (3.07; 1.18-7.98; P=.021).

  • FA was not associated with an increased risk of adult rhinitis.

  • FAS at ages 4 and 10 years was associated with an increased risk of:

    • asthma at (aOR; 95% CI):

      • 18 years (5.69; 2.45-13.20 and 5.25; 2.73-10.08, respectively; P<.001 for both); and

      • 26 years (4.95; 1.95-12.57 and 3.33; 1.59-6.96, respectively; P=.001 for both).

  • Childhood FAS at age 4 years was associated with an increased risk of rhinitis at 18 years (aOR, 3.93; 95% CI, 1.58-9.78; P=.003).

  • Childhood FAS at age 10 years was associated with an increased risk of rhinitis (aOR; 95% CI):

    • 18 years (13.26; 4.60-38.25; P<.001); and

    • 26 years (2.59; 1.26-5.30; P=.009).

Limitations

  • The IOW population was homogenous and predominately comprised Caucasians.

 

Fong WCG, Chan A, Zhang H, Holloway JW, Roberts G, Kurukulaaratchy R, Arshad SH. Childhood food allergy and food allergen sensitisation are associated with adult airways disease: A birth cohort study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2021 Jul 09 [Epub ahead of print]. doi: 10.1111/pai.13592. PMID: 34242424.  View abstract 

This clinical summary originally appeared on Univadis, part of the Medscape Professional Network.

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