Cutaneous Manifestations of Nutritional Excess: Pathophysiologic Effects of Hyperglycemia and Hyperinsulinemia on the Skin

Steven A. Svoboda, BS; Bridget E. Shields, MD

Disclosures

Cutis. 2021;107(2):74-78. 

In This Article

Scleredema Diabeticorum

Scleredema diabeticorum (SD) refers to the slowly progressive, painless thickening and woody induration of the neck, shoulders, and upper back in individuals with long-standing, poorly controlled diabetes. The condition is almost exclusively seen in the diabetic population, with prevalence rates reported to be as high as 14%.[25,26,27] Although SD generally is asymptomatic, some individuals may experience restricted mobility and decreased sensation in affected areas.[25,27,28] The diagnosis of SD frequently is missed or ignored clinically. Biopsy can provide diagnostic confirmation of this entity, as histopathology reveals a thickened reticular dermis with an accumulation of collagen and adjacent mucinous infiltrate with no edema or sclerosis.[28,29]

Although the pathogenesis of SD is not well established, it is theorized that the binding of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) to collagen fibers impairs proper cross-linking and degradation by collagenase.[29,30,31] It is well known that hyperglycemic conditions can promote endogenous formation of AGEs, which occur when reducing sugar molecules become glycated through a nonenzymatic reaction.[30,31,32] The Western diet also is high in preformed AGEs, which are created primarily through certain high-heat cooking methods such as frying and grilling.[31,32] Hyperglycemia-induced stimulation of fibroblasts also has been proposed as a driver of increased collagen deposition observed histologically in SD.[28,29,33] Treatment of SD can be difficult, as there are no consistently reported therapies, and even improvement in glycemic control does not appear to reverse this condition.[29] Case reports have demonstrated some efficacy with various phototherapeutic modalities, including psoralen plus UVA and narrowband UVB phototherapy.[34,35,36]

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