Prevalence and Association of Lifestyle and Medical-, Psychiatric-, and Pain-related Comorbidities in Patients With Migraine

A Cross-sectional Study

Jiu-Haw Yin MD; Yu-Kai Lin MD; Chun-Pai Yang MD, PhD; Chih-Sung Liang MD; Jiunn-Tay Lee MD; Meei-Shyuan Lee PhD; Chia-Lin Tsai MD; Guan-Yu Lin MD; Tsung-Han Ho MD; Fu-Chi Yang MD, PhD


Headache. 2021;61(5):715-726. 

In This Article


We studied lifestyle factors and comorbid conditions in a large sample of patients with migraine compared with non-migraine controls. In addition, headache frequency, aura, and sex subgroup analyses were conducted. Findings highlighted the important difference between patients with migraine and people without migraine: Unhealthy lifestyle factors, namely smoking, was significantly more prevalent among patients with migraine with aura compared with controls, and migraine was associated with comorbid medical, psychiatric, and pain conditions. These findings may have clinical implications. The results of this study indicate the importance of evaluating medical-, psychiatric-, and pain-related comorbidities in patients with migraine, particularly those with aura, those who are female, and those with chronic migraine in clinical practice. Pharmacological therapies for migraine prevention may decrease the headache frequency and migraine-related burden. In particular, understanding the relationship between migraine and comorbid diseases may help to provide optimal medical care as well as improve the patient's quality of life.