Efficacy and Safety of Gout Flare Prophylaxis and Therapy Use in People With Chronic Kidney Disease

A Gout, Hyperuricemia and Crystal-Associated Disease Network (G-CAN)-Initiated Literature Review

Huai Leng Pisaniello; Mark C. Fisher; Hamish Farquhar; Ana Beatriz Vargas-Santos; Catherine L. Hill; Lisa K. Stamp; Angelo L. Gaffo


Arthritis Res Ther. 2021;23(130) 

In This Article

Abstract and Introduction


Gout flare prophylaxis and therapy use in people with underlying chronic kidney disease (CKD) is challenging, given limited treatment options and risk of worsening renal function with inappropriate treatment dosing. This literature review aimed to describe the current literature on the efficacy and safety of gout flare prophylaxis and therapy use in people with CKD stages 3–5. A literature search via PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and EMBASE was performed from 1 January 1959 to 31 January 2018. Inclusion criteria were studies with people with gout and renal impairment (i.e. estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or creatinine clearance (CrCl) < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2), and with exposure to colchicine, interleukin-1 inhibitors, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and glucocorticoids. All study designs were included. A total of 33 studies with efficacy and/or safety analysis stratified by renal function were reviewed—colchicine (n = 20), anakinra (n = 7), canakinumab (n = 1), NSAIDs (n = 3), and glucocorticoids (n = 2). A total of 58 studies reported these primary outcomes without renal function stratification—colchicine (n = 29), anakinra (n = 10), canakinumab (n = 6), rilonacept (n = 2), NSAIDs (n = 1), and glucocorticoids (n = 10). Most clinical trials excluded study participants with severe CKD (i.e. eGFR or CrCl of < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2). Information on the efficacy and safety outcomes of gout flare prophylaxis and therapy use stratified by renal function is lacking. Clinical trial results cannot be extrapolated for those with advanced CKD. Where possible, current and future gout flare studies should include patients with CKD and with study outcomes reported based on renal function and using standardised gout flare definition.