Comorbid Major Depressive Disorder in Schizophrenia

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Damien Etchecopar-Etchart; Theo Korchia; Anderson Loundou; Pierre-Michel Llorca; Pascal Auquier; Christophe Lançon; Laurent Boyer; Guillaume Fond


Schizophr Bull. 2021;47(2):298-308. 

In This Article


SZ-MDD was identified in almost one-third of SZ-stabilized outpatients. Because MDD has been identified as a major prognostic factor of SZ, healthcare providers and public health officials should have an increased awareness of the burden of SZ-MDD. A consensus and clear guidelines for diagnosing SZ-MDD are needed to improve its care. Older and less-educated patients, substance abuse, and chronic somatic illness should be targeted in priority to guide screening, treatment, and prevention. Our results also highlight a lack of sufficient investigation on important research issues. Two-thirds of the potentially associated factors were not sufficiently explored, such as tobacco, alcohol, hypovitaminosis D, or inflammation associated with MDD in patients without SZ; thus, we could not draw conclusions on how these factors influence the prevalence of SZ-MDD. Further research is urgently needed to better understand how to screen, treat, and prevent SZ-MDD.