Mimics of Vasculitis

Ernest Maningding; Tanaz A. Kermani


Rheumatology. 2021;60(1):34-47. 

In This Article

Categories of Vasculitis Mimics

Important mimics of vasculitis include infections and non-inflammatory conditions. We recommend a systematic approach to mimics based on the predominant vessel size of the suspected vasculitis being evaluated (Table 1). While infections can affect any vessel size, vasculopathies typically mimic large and medium vessel vasculitis. Cholesterol emboli, thrombotic and hypercoagulable conditions and calciphylaxis are important mimics of medium and small vessel vasculitis. Neoplasms like cardiac myxomas can mimic vasculitis of any vessel size, while intravascular large cell lymphoma (ILCL) is an important mimic of primary angiitis of the CNS (PACNS).