Cancer Screening in the Transgender Population

A Review of Current Guidelines, Best Practices, and a Proposed Care Model

Joshua Sterling; Maurice M. Garcia


Transl Androl Urol. 2020;9(6):2771-2785. 

In This Article


The current available evidence does not show that GAHT increases oncologic risk for transgender individuals. However, the available evidence is limited and further research into the effects of long-term GAHT is needed. GAHT does not eliminate the potential for malignancy of the patient's natal sex organs and transgender individuals should undergoing cancer screening for all organs present regardless of transition status. Established guidelines for cisgender individuals and can reasonably applied to transgender patients. Comprehensive cancer screening and prevention initiatives centered on relevant anatomy and high-risk behaviors specific for transgender men and women are needed.