Drug-Induced Maculopathy

Mahmood J. Khan; Thanos Papakostas; Kyle Kovacs; Mrinali P. Gupta

Disclosures

Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2020;31(6):563-571. 

In This Article

Abstract and Introduction

Abstract

Purpose of Review: The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of drug-induced maculopathies including their clinical presentations, diagnostic findings, and treatment options. With the increasing pace of development and arrival of drugs to the market, this review aims to inform retina specialists of relevant side effects that may be encountered in a clinical practice setting.

Recent Findings: The major themes visited in this article focus on relevant findings of drugs that cause pigmentary and crystalline maculopathy, photoreceptor dysfunction, cystoid macular edema, central serous choroidopathy, uveitis, and vascular damage.

Summary: The current review reports updated findings and discusses the pathophysiologic mechanisms, presentations, and treatments of drug-induced maculopathies.

Introduction

A number of medications may cause toxicity to the retina. In broad terms, patterns of retinal toxicity can be classified into major categories based on their clinical manifestations: disruptions of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), crystalline retinopathy, photoreceptor dysfunction, cystoid macular edema, central serous choroidopathy, uveitis, and/or vascular damage (Table 1). This review article summarizes drug-related retinal complications, with a focus on those causing drug-induced maculopathies including their clinical presentations, diagnostic findings, pathology, and treatment options. Particular attention is given to new medications or older medications with newly identified retinal toxicity.

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