First Report

U.S. Patient and Clinician Experiences With the inFlow™ Urinary Prosthesis for Permanent Urinary Retention in Women

Leanne Schimke, MSN, FNP-C, CRNP, CUNP; Kevin M. Connolly


Urol Nurs. 2020;40(2):61-73. 

In This Article


Despite numerous attempts by the International Continence Society (ICS), as well as other authoritative groups, to standardize diagnostic terminology (Abrams et al., 2002; Chapple et al., 2018), PUR continues to be referred to by a variety of terms, including underactive bladder, urinary retention, detrusor underactivity, and atonic bladder. Multiple different ICD-10-CM codes are used for PUR. In clinical practice, a patient with a chronic inability to fully empty their bladder is routinely assigned a diagnosis based on any of the following: symptoms (e.g., urinary retention or overflow incontinence), related comorbidities (e.g., multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, spina bifida), or underlying anatomic deficiencies that are either urodynamically observed or presumed (e.g., atonic/hypotonic/areflexic/acontractile bladder, impaired detrusor contractility). However, recently, the more general term underactive bladder has been gaining currency (Chancellor & Diokno, 2016).

Similar to many other areas of women's health, female PUR is not well-studied. Although multiple causes have been identified, including post-surgical, post-partum, or post-radiation changes, PUR is most reliably associated with neurological diseases or injuries such as multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, diabetic neuropathy, stroke, multiple system atrophy, or spina bifida.