Update: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation of Hepatocellular Adenoma

Sadhna Dhingra MD, FCAP; Chakradhar Thupili, MD; Steven Chua, MD, PhD; Kaustubh Shirlakar MD; Srinivasa R Prasad, MD; Venkateswar R Surabhi, MD


Appl Radiol. 2019;48(6):21-29. 

In This Article

Epidemiology and Etiologic Associations

Hepatocellular adenoma has an incidence of 1–1.3 million cases per year in North America and Europe.[12] Several studies have consistently linked the occurrence of HAs to oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use.[13–15] The risk of HA is associated with dose and duration of oral contraceptive use; HAs were particularly associated with use of older generation of OC pills with high-estrogen content. Regression of Hepatocellular adenoma has been reported to occur following cessation of OCPs.[16] HAs have also been reported to occur in men secondary to anabolic steroid/androgen use.[2,3] Other hormonal therapies and risk factors include: clomiphene, danazol,[5] testosterone in patients with Fanconi anemia (FA) and without FA, Klinefelter's syndrome, Glycogen storage disorders I, III and IV, alcohol, and metabolic syndrome. Hepatocellular adenomatosis, defined as development of >10 HAs in a patient, is usually related to germline mutations of HNF1-α gene and is also seen in patients with type 3 maturity onset diabetes of young (MODY 3).[17]