Pediatric Renal Cell Carcinoma

Kiersten M. Craig; Dix P. Poppas; Ardavan Akhavan


Curr Opin Urol. 2019;29(5):500-504. 

In This Article


RCC is the most common renal malignancy in the second decade of life with studies on the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, German and California Registries have shown a median age of presentation between 10.6 and 17 years.[1,2,5] In the prospective AREN03B2 Children Oncology Group, the median age at presentation was 12.9 years.[2] Unlike adult renal cell carcinoma, where there is a 2 : 1 male to female ratio, RCC in young patients has a roughly equal male to female distribution,[1,3,4,6] with a female prevalence in some studies.[3,7,8] Akhavan et al. performed a National Cancer Database study, looking at over 3500 patients up to 30 years of age diagnosed with RCC between 1998 and 2011. In this nationally representative database, the incidence of renal cell carcinoma increased with age, wereas that of Wilm's tumor decreased.[3] Syed et al. performed a multivariate analysis of the 281 patients with RCC in the SEER database (7.7% of 3670 patients with renal tumors) and found that small tumor size, increased age, black race, and localized stage statistically significantly predicted RCC. The strongest predictors of RCC were African American race and age at diagnosis with an odds ratio of 2.6 and 1.5 (P < 0.001), respectively. A nomogram using these four clinical features accurately predicted RCC with 96.5% concordance.[1]