Appendix 1. Example Search Strategy
MEDLINE strategy via OVID platform
(falls or faller*1).tw.
(senior*1 or elder* or old*).tw.
3 and 6
randomized controlled trial.pt.
controlled clinical trial.pt.
exp animals/not humans.sh.
16 not 17
(Podiatr* or Chiropod* or Footcare or Foot care or Foot-care).tw.
exp Foot Diseases/
exp FOOT JOINTS
exp Orthotic devices/
exp FOOT ORTHOSES/
(brace* or foot orthos* or foot orthot* or afo or footwear or shoe* or inlay* or insole*).tw.
(Ankle adj3 foot).tw.
(Lower limb rehabilitat* or Dorsiflexion or Plantarflexion).tw.
(toe* or ankle* or foot).tw.
33 and 34
32 or 35
7 and 18 and 36
Note: Search strategy was adapted from searches published in the Cochrane Database Library [1-3]. The Cochrane Highly Sensitive Search Strategy (CHSSS) for identifying randomised trials in MEDLINE: sensitivity maximising version (2009 revision) as referenced in Chapter 18.104.22.168 and detailed in box 6.4.c of The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions (see Lefebvre 2011 in .
References to Excluded Studies
5. Adams N. Adapting a falls prevention exercise programme with and for older people with visual impairment: a feasibility study. https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN169498452014.
6. Abou-Raya SA-R, A.;Khadrawi, T. A randomized controlled trial of early initiation of osteoporosis assessment and management in the acute setting of the fracture clinic. Annals of the rheumatic diseases. [Journal: Conference Abstract]. 2013;72.
7. Abreu D, Leite L, Santos P, Rodrigues N. Effect of balance exercises on ankle motion during normal and dual-task gait in older adults. Physiotherapy (United Kingdom). 2015;101:eS31.
8. Agmon M, Belza B, Nguyen HQ, Logsdon RG, Kelly VE. A systematic review of interventions conducted in clinical or community settings to improve dual-task postural control in older adults. Clinical interventions in aging. 2014;9:477–92.
9. Aizen E, Lutsyk G, Wainer L, Carmeli S. Effectiveness of individualized fall prevention program in geriatric rehabilitation hospital setting: a cluster randomized trial. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. 2015;27(5):681–8.
10. Al-Aama T. Falls in the elderly: Spectrum and prevention. Canadian Family Physician. 2011;57(7):771–6.
11. Albert SM, Edelstein O, King J, Flatt J, Lin CJ, Boudreau R, et al. Assessing the quality of a non-randomized pragmatic trial for primary prevention of falls among older adults. Prevention science : the official journal of the Society for Prevention Research. 2015;16(1):31–40.
12. Albert SM, King J, Boudreau R, Prasad T, Chyongchiou JL, Newman AB. Primary Prevention of Falls: Effectiveness of a Statewide Program. American Journal of Public Health. 2014;104(5):e77-84.
13. Albert SMR, Jonathan; Chyongchiou, J. Lin; Edelstein, Offer; Smith, Kenneth J. Cost-Effectiveness of a Statewide Falls Prevention Program in Pennsylvania: Healthy Steps for Older Adults. American Journal of Managed Care. 2016;22(10):638–44.
14. Alkalay L, Alcalay J, Sherry C. Reducing falls among the elderly in a small community. The Practitioner. 1984;228(1394):698.
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16. Allen CM, Becker PM, McVey LJ. A randomized, controlled clinical trial of a geriatric consultation team. Compliance with recommendations. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1986;255(19):2617–21.
17. Allen T. Preventing falls in older people: evaluating a peer education approach. British Journal of Community Nursing. 2004;9(5):195–200.
18. Anderson RA, Corazzini K, Porter K, Daily K, McDaniel Jr RR, Colón-Emeric C, et al. CONNECT for quality: protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial to improve fall prevention in nursing homes. Implementation Science. 2012;7(1):11-.
19. Anon. The Libby trial: the fall guys falls. The Economist. 2007;March.
20. Anon. Prevention package for falls aims to reduce number of broken hips. Nursing older people. 2009;23(8).
21. Anon. Rehabilitation service keeps older people steady on their feet. Nursing Standard. 2010;25(7).
22. Anon. Multi-faceted podiatry interventions can prevent falls. Canadian Nursing Home. 2011;22(3).
23. Anon. Study examines effective and ineffective fall prevention measures. PT in Motion. 2012;4(10).
24. Apfel A. Slip and Fall cases: some practical suggestions. Trial - The American Association for Justice. 1992;28(8):30–5.
25. Arkkukangas M, Johnson ST, Hellstrom K, Soderlund A, Eriksson S, Johansson A-C. A feasibility study of a randomised controlled trial comparing fall prevention using exercise with or without the support of motivational interviewing. Preventive medicine reports. 2015;2:134–40.
26. Ashburn A, Fazakarley L, Ballinger C, Pickering R, McLellan LD, Fitton C. A randomised controlled trial of a home based exercise programme to reduce the risk of falling among people with Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 2007;78(7):678–84.
27. Assantachai P, Chatthanawaree W, Thamlikitkul V, Praditsuwan R, Pisalsarakij D. Strategy to prevent falls in the Thai elderly: a controlled study integrated health research program for the Thai elderly. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet. 2002;85(2):215–22.
28. Atchison JW. The use of exercise in the elderly to enhance functional mobility and prevent falls. Journal of back and musculoskeletal rehabilitation. 1994;4(2):97–104.
29. Auais MA, Beatriz E.; Curcio, Carmen-Lucia; Garcia, Angeles; Ylli, Alban; Deshpande, Nandini. Fear of falling as a risk factor of mobility disability in older people at five diverse sites of the IMIAS study. Archives of Gerontology & Geriatrics. 2016;66:147–53.
30. Bae J, Cho S-i. Effects of Community-based Comprehensive Fall Prevention Program on Muscle Strength, Postural Balance and Fall Efficacy in Elderly People. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing. 2014;44(6):697–707.
31. Ballard JE, McFarland C, Wallace LS, Holiday DB, Roberson G. The effect of 15 weeks of exercise on balance, leg strength, and reduction in falls in 40 women aged 65 to 89 years. Journal of the American Medical Women's Association (1972). 2004;59(4):255–61.
32. Balzer K, Bremer M, Schramm S, Lühmann D, Raspe H. Falls prevention for the elderly (Structured abstract). Health Technology Assessment Database [serial on the Internet]. 2012; (4): Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clhta/articles/HTA-32010001138/frame.html.
33. Barker AL, Cameron PA, Hill KD, Flicker L, Haines TP, Lowthian JA, et al. RESPOND--A patient-centred programme to prevent secondary falls in older people presenting to the emergency department with a fall: protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Injury prevention : journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention [serial on the Internet]. 2015; 21(1): Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/660/CN-01115660/frame.html.
34. Barry H. Can strengthening exercises prevent falls in community-living elders? Evidence-Based Practice. 2002;5(9):4–2p.
35. Batchelor FA, Hill KD, Mackintosh SF, Said CM, Whitehead CH. Effects of a multifactorial falls prevention program for people with stroke returning home after rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2012;93(9):1648–55.
36. Batchelor FA, Hill KD, Mackintosh SF, Said CM, Whitehead CH, Batchelor FA, et al. The FLASSH study: protocol for a randomised controlled trial evaluating falls prevention after stroke and two sub-studies. BMC Neurology. 2009;9:14-.
37. Battle M, Davies J, Simmonds JS, Marshall A. The Plymouth falls intervention study: a randomised controlled trial of a multifactorial intervention in the prevention of falls in the elderly: preliminary cardiological results. Europace. 2005;7(Suppl. 1):215.
38. Beauvais AB, John E. Reducing the Fear of Falling Through a Community Evidence-Based Intervention. Home Healthcare Nurse. 2014;32(2):98–105.
39. Becker C, Kron M, Lindemann U, Sturm E, Eichner B, Walter-Jung B, et al. Effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention on falls in nursing home residents. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2003;51(3):306–13.
40. Becker C, Rapp K. Fall prevention in nursing homes. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine. 2010;26(4):693–704.
41. Beling J, Roller M. Multifactorial intervention with balance training as a core component among fall-prone older adults. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy. 2009;32(3):125–33.
42. Berggren M, Stenvall M, Olofsson B, Gustafson Y. Evaluation of a fall-prevention program in older people after femoral neck fracture: A one-year follow-up. Osteoporosis International. 2008;19(6):801–9.
43. Bernick LB, I. Safe Mobility Program: a comprehensive falls prevention program for a multilevel geriatric setting. Perspectives: The Journal of the Gerontological Nursing Association. 1999;23(3):4–12.
44. Bighea AP, S.; Bumbea, A.; Popescu, R. Randomized controlled trial of a home based exercise and balance training programme in elderly women with osteoporosis. Osteoporosis International. 2011;22:S238.
45. Black D. Preventing falls in institutional environments. Geriatric Medicine. 2007;37(2):11-.
46. Blake S. Preventing falls. Kai Tiaki Nursing New Zealand. 2013;19(10):29-.
47. Boehm JF, Richard C.; King, Jemma C. Falls in rural and remote community dwelling older adults: A review of the literature. Australian Journal of Rural Health. 2014;22(4):146–55.
48. Boninger MLR, C. J.; Whitney, S.; Redfern, M. S.; Musolino, M. C. Geriatrics. Minimizing falls in the elderly. Rehabilitation R&D Progress Reports. 1998;35:108–9.
49. Booth VL, Pip; Harwood, Rowan; Hood, Victoria. Falls prevention interventions in older adults with cognitive impairment: A systematic review of reviews. International Journal of Therapy & Rehabilitation. 2015;22(6):289–96.
50. Borowicz AZ, E. W. A.; Gaczkowska, Agnieszka; GawŁOwska, Olga; Pawlaczyk, Mariola. Assessing gait and balance impairment in elderly residents of nursing homes. Journal of Physical Therapy Science. 2016;28(9):2486–90.
51. Bourke NP, U. M. Effects of an exercise and education based falls prevention programme for community dwelling older people with and without computerised visual feedback training -- a randomised controlled pilot study…Rehabilitation and Therapy Research Society Fourth Annual Conference. Physical Therapy Reviews. 2008;13(3):200–1.
52. Bowers LA. Preventing falls: It's within your power. Long-Term Living: For the Continuing Care Professional. 2013;62(8):13–5.
53. Bowling A, Formby J. Accidents in elderly care: a randomised controlled trial (Part 1). Nursing standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) : 1987). 1992;6(29):28–30.
54. Bowling A, Formby J, Grant K. Accidents in elderly care: a randomised controlled trial (Part 2). Nursing standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) : 1987). 1992;6(30):28–31.
55. Bowling A, Formby J, Grant K. Accidents in elderly care: a randomised controlled trial (part 3). Nursing standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) : 1987). 1992;6(31):25–7.
56. Brandon LJB, L. W.; Gaasch, D. A.; Lloyd, A. Effects of lower extremity strength training on functional mobility in older adults. Journal of aging and physical activity [serial on the Internet]. 2000; 8(3): Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/897/CN-00354897/frame.html.
57. Bray Jenkyn KH, J. S.; Speechley, M. How much are we willing to pay to prevent a fall? Cost-effectiveness of a multifactorial falls prevention program for community-dwelling older adults (Structured abstract). Canadian Journal on Aging [serial on the Internet]. 2012; 31(2): Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/cleed/articles/NHSEED-22012035822/frame.html.
58. Brecher DB. Intervention with the STOPP/START criteria in elderly residents of a chronic geriatric facility: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of pain and symptom management [serial on the Internet]. 2015; 49(5): Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/286/CN-01074286/frame.html.
59. Brouwer BJ, Walker C, Rydahl SJ, Culham EG. Reducing fear of falling in seniors through education and activity programs: a randomized trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society [serial on the Internet]. 2003; 51(6): Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/620/CN-00437620/frame.html.
60. Brown DS. Do leaves have to fall in their autumn? A falls prevention strategy in action in the south east of South Australia. Rural & Remote Health. 2004;4(1):12p-p.
61. Bruin EDM, C.; Waelle, R.; Murer, K. Strength training and balance performance compared to combined strength and agility training in elderly over 80 years: a three months RCT. Isokinetics and exercise science [serial on the Internet]. 2004; 12(1): Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/965/CN-00746965/frame.html.
62. Buettner LL. Focus on caregiving. Falls prevention in dementia populations. Provider (Washington, DC). 2002;28(2):41–3.
63. Cadth. Foot care for seniors in the community setting: clinical effectiveness and guidelines (Structured abstract). Health Technology Assessment Database [serial on the Internet]. 2014; (4): Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clhta/articles/HTA-32015000226/frame.html.
64. Cameron ID, Gillespie LD, Robertson MC, Murray GR, Hill KD, Cumming RG, et al. Interventions for preventing falls in older people in care facilities and hospitals. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2012;12:CD005465.
65. Calder CG, Mannion J, Metcalf PA. Low-intensity whole-body vibration training to reduce fall risk in active, elderly residents of a retirement village. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2013;61(8):1424–6.
66. Campbell AJ. Falls in older people: consider lowering the risk of injury as well as lowering the risk of a fall. BMJ: British Medical Journal (International Edition). 2008;337(7681):1247–8.
67. Campbell AJ, Robertson MC, Gardner MM, Norton RN, Buchner DM. Falls prevention over 2 years: A randomized controlled trial in women 80 years and older. Age and Ageing. 1999;28(6):513–8.
68. Capodaglio PF, M.; Burroni, E.; Giordano, A.; Ferri, A.; Scaglioni, G. Effectiveness of a home-based strengthening program for elderly males in Italy. A preliminary study. Aging clinical and experimental research [serial on the Internet]. 2002; 14(1): Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/732/CN-00408732/frame.html.
69. Carmeli ER, A. Z.; Coleman, R.; Carmeli, V. Muscle strength and mass of lower extremities in relation to functional abilities in elderly adults. Gerontology [serial on the Internet]. 2000; 46: Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/190/CN-00885190/frame.html.
70. Carter D. A 'Hospital at Home' Program Shows Good Outcomes. American Journal of Nursing. 2012;112(9):18-.
71. Casteel C, Peek-Asa C, Lacsamana C, Vazquez L, Kraus JF. Evaluation of a falls prevention program for independent elderly. American Journal of Health Behavior. 2004;28:S51-60.
72. Chang JT, Morton SC, Rubenstein LZ, Mojica WA, Maglione M, Suttorp MJ, et al. Interventions for the prevention of falls in older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. BMJ: British Medical Journal (International Edition). 2004;328(7441):680–3.
73. Chen T-YJ, Megan C. Predictors of falls among community-dwelling older adults with cancer: results from the health and retirement study. Supportive Care in Cancer. 2014;22(2):479–85.
74. Cheol-Jin KYL, K. I. M.; Suk Min, L. E. E. Effects of elastic-band resistance exercise on balance, mobility and gait function, flexibility and fall efficacy in elderly people. Journal of Physical Therapy Science. 2016;28(11):3189–96.
75. Church JG, S.; Norman, R.; Haas, M. The cost-effectiveness of falls prevention interventions for older community-dwelling Australians (Structured abstract). Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health [serial on the Internet]. 2012; 36(3): Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/cleed/articles/NHSEED-22012035415/frame.html.
76. Ciaschini PM, Straus SE, Dolovich LR, Goeree RA, Leung KM, Woods CR, et al. Community-based intervention to optimise falls risk management: a randomised controlled trial. Age and ageing [serial on the Internet]. 2009; 38(6): Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/055/CN-00732055/frame.html.
77. Clemson L, Cumming RG, Kendig H, Swann M, Heard R, Taylor K. The effectiveness of a community-based program for reducing the incidence of falls in the elderly: a randomized trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society [serial on the Internet]. 2004; 52(9): Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/097/CN-00491097/frame.html.
78. Clemson L, Fiatarone Singh MA, Bundy A, Cumming RG, Manollaras K, O'Loughlin P, et al. Integration of balance and strength training into daily life activity to reduce rate of falls in older people (the LiFE study): Randomised parallel trial. BMJ (Online). 2012;345(7870):no pagination.
79. Clemson L, Singh MF, Bundy A, Cumming RG, Weissel E, Munro J, et al. LiFE Pilot Study: A randomised trial of balance and strength training embedded in daily life activity to reduce falls in older adults. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal. 2010;57(1):42–50.
80. Clemson L, Taylor K, Kendig H, Cumming RG, Swann M. Recruiting older participants to a randomised trial of a community-based fall prevention program. Australasian Journal on Ageing. 2007;26(1):35–9.
81. Close J, Ellis M, Hooper R, Glucksman E, Jackson S, Swift C. Prevention of falls in the elderly trial (PROFET): A randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 1999;353(9147):93–7.
82. Close JC, Wesson J, Sherrington C, Hill KD, Kurrle S, Lord SR, et al. Can a tailored exercise and home hazard reduction program reduce the rate of falls in community dwelling older people with cognitive impairment: protocol paper for the i-FOCIS randomised controlled trial. BMC geriatrics. 2014;14:89.
83. Cohen DM, Ashley. Interventions for Preventing Falls Among Older Adults Living in the Community. American Family Physician. 2017;95(3):152–3.
84. Cohen MA, Miller J, Shi X, Sandhu J, Lipsitz LA. Prevention program lowered the risk of falls and decreased claims for long-term services among elder participants. Health Affairs. 2015;34(6):971–7.
85. Colón-Emeric CS. Falls in older adults: assessment and intervention in primary care. Journal of Clinical Outcomes Management. 2001;8(3):48–58.
86. Colón-Emeric CS, A.; Gorospe, J.; McArdle, J.; Dobson, L.; DePorter, C.; McConnell, E. Translating evidence-based falls prevention into clinical practice in nursing facilities: results and lessons from a quality improvement collaborative. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2006;54(9):1414–8.
87. Colon-Emeric CS, McConnell E, Pinheiro SO, Corazzini K, Porter K, Earp KM, et al. CONNECT for Better Fall Prevention in Nursing Homes: Results from a Pilot Intervention Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2013;61(12):2150–9.
88. Comans TA, Brauer SG, Haines TP. Randomized trial of domiciliary versus center-based rehabilitation: which is more effective in reducing falls and improving quality of life in older fallers? The journals of gerontologyseries a, biological sciences and medical sciences [serial on the Internet]. 2010; 65(6): Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/696/CN-00847696/frame.html.
89. Conroy S, Kendrick D, Harwood R, Gladman J, Coupland C, Sach T, et al. A multicentre randomised controlled trial of day hospital-based falls prevention programme for a screened population of community-dwelling older people at high risk of falls. Age and Ageing. 2010;39(6):704–10.
90. Cornillon E, Blanchon MA, Ramboatsisetraina P, Braize C, Beauchet O, Dubost V. [Effectiveness of falls prevention strategies for elderly subjects who live in the community with performance assessment of physical activities (before-after)]. [French]. Annales de readaptation et de medecine physique [serial on the Internet]. 2002; 45(9): Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/142/CN-00847142/frame.html.
91. Crotty M, Rowett D, Spurling L, Giles LC, Phillips PA. Does the addition of a pharmacist transition coordinator improve evidence-based medication management and health outcomes in older adults moving from the hospital to a long-term care facility? Results of a randomized, controlled trial. The American journal of geriatric pharmacotherapy [serial on the Internet]. 2004; 2(4): Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/527/CN-00515527/frame.html.
92. Dargent-Molina PF, F.; Grandjean, H.; Baudoin, C.; Schott, A. M.; Hausherr, E.; Meunier, P. J.; Breart, G. Fall-related factors and risk of hip fractures: the EPIDOS prospective study. Lancet. 1996;348 North American Edition(9021):145–9.
93. Davis JC, Marra CA, Najafzadeh M, Liu-Ambrose T. The independent contribution of executive functions to health related quality of life in older women. BMC geriatrics [serial on the Internet]. 2010; 10: Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/775/CN-00771775/frame.html.
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95. Day LM. Fall Prevention Programs for Community-Dwelling Older People Should Primarily Target a Multifactorial Intervention Rather Than Exercise as a Single Intervention. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2013;61(2):284–5.
96. De Coninck LH, M. L.; Spildooren, J.; Van Cleynenbreugel, E.; Verschueren, S.; Vander Weyden, L.; Stas, M.; Polfliet, M.; Flamaing, J.; Milisen, K. Does a multifactorial patient-centered fall prevention program increase the compliance of community dwelling older persons at high risk of falls? European Geriatric Medicine. 2016;7:S218.
97. de Morais Barbosa C, Barros Bertolo M, Marques Neto JF, Bellini Coimbra I, Davitt M, de Paiva Magalhaes E. The effect of foot orthoses on balance, foot pain and disability in elderly women with osteoporosis: a randomized clinical trial. Rheumatology (Oxford, England). 2013;52(3):515–22.
98. DeSure AR, Peterson K, Gianan FV, Pang L. An exercise program to prevent falls in institutionalized elderly with cognitive deficits: a crossover pilot study. Hawai'i journal of medicine & public health : a journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health. 2013;72(11):391–5.
99. De Vries OJ, Peeters G, Elders PJ, Muller M, Knol DL, Danner SA, et al. Multifactorial intervention to reduce falls in older people at high risk of recurrent falls. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2010;170(13):1110–7.
100. DeLaney LMH, Yi-Ling; Keglovits, Marian; Somerville, Emily K.; Baum, Carolyn M.; Stark, Susan L. Predictors of Engagement in Home Activities Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics. 2016;34(4):205–20.
101. Di Monaco M, Vallero F, De Toma E, Castiglioni C, Gardin L, Giordano S, et al. Adherence to recommendations for fall prevention significantly affects the risk of falling after hip fracture: Post-hoc analyses of a quasi-randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. 2012;48(1):9–15.
102. Diener DDM, J. M. Impact of a multifactorial fall prevention program upon falls of older frail adults attending an adult health day care center. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation. 2005;21(3):247–57.
103. Enevold GC, N. F. Fall prevention program for community-dwelling older adults and their caregivers. Home Healthcare Nurse Manager. 2000;4(4):22–8.
104. Faes MC, Reelick MF, Melis RJ, Borm GF, Esselink RA, Olde Rikkert MG. Multifactorial Fall Prevention for Pairs of Frail Community-Dwelling Older Fallers and their Informal Caregivers: A Dead End for Complex Interventions in the Frailest Fallers. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. 2011;12(6):451–8.
105. Faes MC, Reelick MF, Joosten-Weyn Banningh LW, Gier M, Esselink RA, Olde Rikkert MG. Qualitative study on the impact of falling in frail older persons and family caregivers: Foundations for an intervention to prevent falls. Aging & Mental Health. 2010;14(7):834–42.
106. Fairhall N, Aggar C, Kurrle SE, Sherrington C, Lord S, Lockwood K, et al. Frailty intervention trial (FIT). BMC Geriatrics. 2008;8:no pagination.
107. Fairhall N, Sherrington C, Lord SR, Kurrle SE, Langron C, Lockwood K, et al. Effect of a multifactorial, interdisciplinary intervention on risk factors for falls and fall rate in frail older people: a randomised controlled trial. Age and ageing. 2014;43(5):616–22.
108. Fernandes Barbosa KTEdA, Saemmy Grasiely; Melo Fernandes, Maria das Graças; Lopes de Oliveira, Fabiana Maria Rodrigues; Dias Rodrigues, Mayara Muniz; Melo Fernandes, Amanda. Podal changes and mobility in elderly assisted in geriatric outpatient clinic. Revista de Pesquisa: Cuidado e Fundamental. 2015;7(2):2254–62.
109. Ferrer A, Badia T, Formiga F, Almeda J, Fernandez C, Pujol R, et al. [Gender differences in health status in a population of over 85 year-olds: the Octabaix study]. Diferencias de genero en el perfil de salud de una cohorte de 85 anos Estudio Octabaix. 2011;43(11):577–84.
110. Finlay OE. Footwear management in the elderly care programme. Physiotherapy. 1986;72(4):172–8.
111. Fitzharris MP, Day L, Lord SR, Gordon I, Fildes B. The Whitehorse NoFalls trial: Effects on fall rates and injurious fall rates. Age and Ageing. 2010;39(6):728–33.
112. Foley A. Sent Home Safer. JEN: Journal of Emergency Nursing. 2012;38(4):381–2.
113. Formiga F, Lopez-Soto A, Duaso E, Chivite D, Ruiz D, Perez-Castejon JM, et al. Characteristics of falls producing hip fractures in nonagenarians. Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging. 2008;12(9):664–7.
114. Formiga F, Lopez-Soto A, Duaso E, Ruiz D, Chivite D, Perez-Castejon JM, et al. Characteristics of fall-related hip fractures in community-dwelling elderly patients according to cognitive status. Aging Clinical & Experimental Research. 2008;20(5):434–8.
115. Formosa DPB, Brendan; Fawcett, Christine; Burke, Chris; O'Leary, Jeremy. Effectiveness of an Evidence-Based Multidisciplinary Falls Prevention Program in Reducing Falls in High-Risk Older People. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2014;62(4):778–9.
116. Fox PJ, Vazquez L, Tonner C, Stevens JA, Fineman N, Ross LK. A Randomized Trial of a Multifaceted Intervention to Reduce Falls Among Community-Dwelling Adults. Health Education and Behavior. 2010;37(6):831–48.
117. Franco MRS, C.; Tiedemann, A.; Pereira, L. S.; Perracini, M. R.; Faria, C. R. S.; Pinto, R. Z.; Pastre, C. M. Effectiveness of Senior Dance on risk factors for falls in older adults (DanSE): a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMJ open [serial on the Internet]. 2017; 6(12) (no pagination): Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/490/CN-01298490/frame.html.
118. Freiberger E, Haberle L, Spirduso WW, Rixt Zijlstra GA. Long-term effects of three multicomponent exercise interventions on physical performance and fall-related psychological outcomes in community-dwelling older adults: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society [serial on the Internet]. 2012; 60(3): Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clcentral/articles/998/CN-00896998/frame.html.
119. Freiberger E, Blank WA, Salb J, Geilhof B, Hentschke C, Landendoerfer P, et al. Effects of a complex intervention on fall risk in the general practitioner setting: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Clinical interventions in aging. 2013;8:1079–88.
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Declarations of Sources of Funding
Funded by the Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government, award number CGA/16/40. The financial sponsor played no role in the design, execution, analysis and interpretation of data or writing of the study.
Age Ageing. 2019;48(3):327-336. © 2019 Oxford University Press
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