Cystic Fibrosis Colorectal Cancer Screening Consensus Recommendations

Denis Hadjiliadis; Alexander Khoruts; Ann G. Zauber; Sarah E. Hempstead; Patrick Maisonneuve; Albert B. Lowenfels


Gastroenterology. 2018;154(3):736-745. 

In This Article

Supplementary Material

Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Colorectal Cancer Screening Consensus Recommendations Methodology Overview

The Colorectal Cancer Screening Consensus Recommendations For Individuals With Cystic Fibrosis Task Force convened for the first time in April 2015 at the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Headquarters in Bethesda, Maryland. The 18-member task force consisted of pulmonologists, gastroenterologists, a social worker, nurse coordinator, surgeon, epidemiologist, statistician, adult with CF, and a parent of a child with CF. The task force was divided into 3 workgroups: Cancer Risk, Transplant, and Procedure and Preparation.

Evidence Synthesis and Review

At the initial meeting, the task force determined the scope of the document, developed PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcome) questions (Supplementary Table 1); and determined relevant search terms. The task force reviewed and approved of the PICO questions. The American Gastroenterological Association Governing Board also reviewed and approved of the PICO questions in April 2015.

PubMed was searched for relevant, published, articles in February−March, 2016. Task force members conducted independent searches on relevant information to strengthen the scope of research. The terms searched can be found at the end of this Supplementary Material. A total of 1159 articles were retrieved. Of these articles, 198 articles were read at the full-text level. In total, 50 articles were included in the final manuscript (Supplementary Figure 1).

Supplementary Figure 1.

Literature review diagram.

Initial review of the literature at the title level was conducted by a researcher at the CF Foundation and task force members. Abstracts not in English, did not address the PICO question, were basic science, not original research, did not involve humans, letters, and editorials were excluded (Supplementary Figure 1). Abstract only citations were also excluded. Articles that were deemed appropriate for review at a full-text level were distributed by workgroup-leads for further evaluation. Each workgroup reviewed the records found in the CF Foundation evidence synthesis.

If a task force member determined that the full text should be considered, it was pulled from either their institution or Johns Hopkins. Workgroups completed evidence tables for the records reviewed (Supplementary Table 2).

After a thorough review of the records, each workgroup drafted recommendation statements based on their PICO questions. A total of 10 recommendation statements were considered and voted on. An 80% agreement threshold was agreed to before the meeting.


The CF Foundation contracted with Erasmus Medial Center, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Netherlands, to conduct modeling on screening individuals with CF for colorectal cancer. The goal of the modeling was to provide estimates of the benefits and costs of screening in the CF population given that life expectancy and CRC risk differ from the general population. Data used for this modeling came from the CF Foundation Patient Registry and the current literature on the CRC in CF. The modeling was conducted using the Microsimulation Screening Analysis model, which is part of the Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network. The data were presented to the task force in June 2016 to provide additional evidence to inform their recommendation statements. Revisions to the modeling were presented at the July 16, 2016 face-to-face meeting before voting on recommendation statements.


The task force reconvened at the CF Foundation Headquarters in July 2016. An a priori voting agreement threshold of 80% was determined before the second meeting. Voting occurred by a show of hands for or against the statement, and the project coordinator tallied the results. The task force then discussed and voted on each statement. Discussion and revision of the statements occurred before voting. For task force members who were not present, a recording of the meeting was distributed with the proposed recommendation statements. The votes from these task force members were collected electronically. Of the 10 statements, 8 achieved 100% consensus and 2 achieved 94% consensus.

External Review. The manuscript and recommendation statements were distributed to the CF Clinical Community, Lung Transplant Community, and Gastrointestinal Community through CF Foundation, International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation and American Gastroenterological Association listservs. The CF Foundation listservs included center directors, dietitians, physical therapists, patients and families, social workers, nurses, and pharmacists. Reviewers were given 2 weeks to submit comments and feedback using an online survey tool, Survey Monkey. The comments were reviewed and responded to by the task force chairs and the manuscript was updated to reflect these comments when appropriate.

Major Gaps in the Evidence

When initiating these guidelines, the task force did not expect to find a large pool of evidence specific to individuals with CF. Additional research and clinical trials on screening for CRC in individuals with CF are needed to strengthen the task force's recommendations. Further research regarding the incidence of CRC in individuals with CF, and the effectiveness of additional screening tests, such as FIT and Cologuard are needed to close the gaps in the evidence.

Terms Searched

PubMed Search 3.22.16: (((colonoscopy) AND screening) AND transplant) AND "english and humans"[Filter]

PubMed Search 2.8.16: (((((((colon) OR colorectal) OR bowel) OR adenocarcinoma) OR gastrointestinal) AND "Cystic Fibrosis") AND "cancer"[Filter]) AND "english"[Filter]

PubMed Search 3.23.16: ((Colorectal Cancer) AND Organ Transplant) And Cystic Fibrosis

Search Strategy Used to Create the Cancer Subset on PubMed. Strategy last modified February 2016.

Neoplasms OR American Cancer Society OR angiogenesis inducing agents OR antibodies, neoplasm OR antigens, neoplasm OR antineoplastic agents OR antineoplastic protocols OR biomarkers, tumor OR biopsy [mh] OR biopsy [tw] OR bone marrow purging OR bone marrow transplantation OR cancer care facilities OR cancer vaccines OR carcinogenicity tests OR carcinogens OR chemoembolization, therapeutic OR clonal evolution [mh] OR clonal evolution [tw] OR colonography, computed tomographic OR colonoscopy OR colposcopy OR combined modality therapy OR cryosurgery OR cytapheresis OR dna, neoplasm OR drug resistance, neoplasm OR drug screening assays, antitumor OR early detection of cancer OR gene expression regulation, neoplastic OR genes, neoplasm OR graft vs tumor effect OR hematopoietic stem cell transplantation OR hematopoietic stem cell mobilization OR immunotherapy, adoptive OR leukostasis OR lymph node excision OR lymphocytes, tumor-infiltrating OR mammography OR mastectomy OR medical oncology OR metastasectomy OR mohs surgery OR myelodysplastic-myeloproliferative diseases OR neoplasm grading OR neoplasm proteins OR neoplasm staging OR neoplasm transplantation OR neoplastic processes OR neoplastic stem cells OR oncogene fusion OR oncogenic viruses OR oncology nursing OR oncology service, hospital OR oncolytic viruses OR papanicolaou test [mh] OR papillomavirus vaccines OR peripheral blood stem cell transplantation OR polyomavirus OR radiotherapy OR radiotherapy planning, computer assisted OR rna, neoplasm OR second-look surgery OR SEER program OR stem cell transplantation [mh:noexp] OR transplantation conditioning OR tumor cells, cultured OR tumor escape OR tumor lysis syndrome OR tumor necrosis factors OR receptors, tumor necrosis factor OR tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated peptides and proteins OR ultrasonography, mammary OR AACR OR AJCC [tw] OR (ASCO NOT fungi) OR IARC OR "National Cancer Institute" OR NCI OR UICC OR aCML [tw] OR AGCUS [tw] OR AILD [tw] OR AML [tw] OR ANLL [tw] OR ASCUS [tw] OR ATLL [tw] OR BRCA [tw] OR BRCA1 [tw] OR BRCA2 [tw] OR CIN [tw] OR CLL [tw] OR CMML [tw] OR CMPD [tw] OR ECCL [tw] OR EGIST [tw] OR FMTC [tw] OR GLNH [tw] OR HNPCC [tw] OR HNSCC [tw] OR HPV [tw] OR HSIL [tw] OR ICD O [tw] OR JCML [tw] OR JMML [tw] OR LGLL [tw] OR MGUS [tw] OR MLH1 [tw] OR MPD [tw] OR MSH2 [tw] OR NSCLC [tw] OR RAEB [tw] OR RCMD [tw] OR SCLC [tw] OR VOD [tw] OR 5q syndrome [tw] OR BCR ABL [tw] OR c erbB 2 [tw] OR c erbB2 [tw] OR carney complex [tw] OR cone biopsy [tw] OR denys drash [tw] OR essential thrombocythemia [tw] OR estrogen receptor negative [tw] OR estrogen receptor positive [tw] OR li fraumeni [tw] OR meigs syndrome [tw] OR molar pregnancy [tw] OR mycosis fungoides [tw] OR peutz jeghers [tw] OR sentinel lymph node [tw] OR sezary syndrome [tw] OR struma ovarii [tw] OR sturge weber [tw] OR zollinger ellison [tw] OR (aberrant [tw] AND crypt [tw] AND foci [tw]) OR ((anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate [tw] OR anti-nmda) AND encephalitis [tw]) OR (barrett [tw] AND esophagus [tw]) OR (gestational [tw] AND trophoblastic [tw]) OR (microsatellite [tw] AND instability [tw]) OR (paget [tw] AND (breast [tw] OR nipple [tw])) OR (polycythemia [tw] AND vera [tw]) OR (radiation [tw] AND therapy [tw]) OR (WAGR [tw] AND syndrome [tw]) OR (pap [tw] AND (smear [tw] OR smears [tw])) OR cervical smear [tw] OR cervical smears [tw] OR pap test [tw] OR pap tests [tw] OR (PSA [tw] AND prostate) OR PSA test [tw] OR PSA testing [tw] OR (prostate [tw] AND specific [tw] AND antigen [tw]) OR acanthoma [tw] OR acanthomas [tw] OR acrochordon [tw] OR acrochordons [tw] OR acrospiroma [tw] OR acrospiromas [tw] OR adamantinoma [tw] OR adamantinomas [tw] OR adenoacanthoma [tw] OR adenoacanthomas [tw] OR adenoameloblastoma [tw] OR adenoameloblastomas [tw] OR adenocanthoma [tw] OR adenocanthomas [tw] OR adenocarcinoma [tw] OR adenocarcinomas [tw] OR adenofibroma [tw] OR adenofibromas [tw] OR adenolipoma [tw] OR adenolipomas [tw] OR adenolymphoma [tw] OR adenolymphomas [tw] OR adenoma [tw] OR adenomas [tw] OR adenomatosis [tw] OR adenomatous [tw] OR adenomyoepithelioma [tw] OR adenomyoepitheliomas [tw] OR adenomyoma [tw] OR adenomyomas [tw] OR adenosarcoma [tw] OR adenosarcomas [tw] OR adenosis [tw] OR aesthesioneuroblastoma [tw] OR aesthesioneuroblastomas [tw] OR ameloblastoma [tw] OR ameloblastomas [tw] OR amyloidoses [tw] OR amyloidosis [tw] OR anaplasia [tw] OR androblastoma [tw] OR androblastomas [tw] OR angioblastoma [tw] OR angioblastomas [tw] OR angioendothelioma [tw] OR angioendotheliomas [tw] OR angioendotheliomatosis [tw] OR angiofibroma [tw] OR angiofibromas [tw] OR angiofibrosarcoma [tw] OR angiogenesis factor [tw] OR angiokeratoma [tw] OR angiokeratomas [tw] OR angioleiomyoma [tw] OR angioleiomyomas [tw] OR angiolipoma [tw] OR angiolipomas [tw] OR angioma [tw] OR angiomas [tw] OR angiomatosis [tw] OR angiomyolipoma [tw] OR angiomyolipomas [tw] OR angiomyoma [tw] OR angiomyomas [tw] OR angiomyxoma [tw] OR angiomyxomas [tw] OR angioreticuloma [tw] OR angioreticulomas [tw] OR angiosarcoma [tw] OR angiosarcomas [tw] OR anticancer [tw] OR anticarcinogenesis [tw] OR anticarcinogenic [tw] OR antimutagenesis [tw] OR antineoplastic [tw] OR antioncogene [tw] OR antioncogenes [tw] OR antitumor [tw] OR antitumors [tw] OR antitumour [tw] OR antitumours [tw] OR apudoma [tw] OR apudomas [tw] OR argentaffinoma [tw] OR argentaffinomas [tw] OR arrhenoblastoma [tw] OR arrhenoblastomas [tw] OR astroblastoma [tw] OR astroblastomas [tw] OR astrocytoma [tw] OR astrocytomas [tw] OR astroglioma [tw] OR astrogliomas [tw] OR atypia [tw] OR baltoma [tw] OR basiloma [tw] OR basilomas [tw] OR biochemotherapies [tw] OR biochemotherapy [tw] OR bioradiotherapy [tw] OR Birt-Hogg-Dube [tw] OR blastoma [tw] OR blastomas [tw] OR Buschke-Lowenstein [tw] OR cachexia [tw] OR cancer [tw] OR cancerous [tw] OR cancers [tw] OR carcinogen [tw] OR carcinogenesis [tw] OR carcinogenic [tw] OR carcinogens [tw] OR carcinoid [tw] OR carcinoma [tw] OR carcinomas [tw] OR carcinomatosis [tw] OR carcinosarcoma [tw] OR carcinosarcomas [tw] OR cavernoma [tw] OR cavernomas [tw] OR cementoma [tw] OR cementomas [tw] OR cerbB2 [tw] OR ceruminoma [tw] OR ceruminomas [tw] OR chemodectoma [tw] OR chemodectomas [tw] OR chemoimmunoradiotherapy [tw] OR chemoimmunotherapies [tw] OR chemoimmunotherapy [tw] OR chemoprevention [tw] OR chemoradiation [tw] OR chemoradiotherapies [tw] OR chemoradiotherapy [tw] OR cherubism [tw] OR chloroma [tw] OR chloromas [tw] OR cholangiocarcinoma [tw] OR cholangiocarcinomas [tw] OR cholangiohepatoma [tw] OR cholangioma [tw] OR cholangiomas [tw] OR cholangiosarcoma [tw] OR cholesteatoma [tw] OR cholesteatomas [tw] OR chondroblastoma [tw] OR chondroblastomas [tw] OR chondroma [tw] OR chondromas [tw] OR chondrosarcoma [tw] OR chondrosarcomas [tw] OR chordoma [tw] OR chordomas [tw] OR chorioadenoma [tw] OR chorioadenomas [tw] OR chorioangioma [tw] OR chorioangiomas [tw] OR choriocarcinoma [tw] OR choriocarcinomas [tw] OR chorioepithelioma [tw] OR chorioepitheliomas [tw] OR chorionepithelioma [tw] OR chorionepitheliomas [tw] OR choristoma [tw] OR choristomas [tw] OR chromaffinoma [tw] OR chromaffinomas [tw] OR cocarcinogenesis [tw] OR collagenoma [tw] OR collagenomas [tw] OR colonoscopies [tw] OR coloscopy [tw] OR coloscopies [tw] OR comedocarcinoma [tw] OR comedocarcinomas [tw] OR condyloma [tw] OR condylomas [tw] OR corticotropinoma [tw] OR corticotropinomas [tw] OR craniopharyngioma [tw] OR craniopharyngiomas [tw] OR cylindroma [tw] OR cylindromas [tw] OR cyst [tw] OR cysts [tw] OR cystadenocarcinoma [tw] OR cystadenocarcinomas [tw] OR cystadenofibroma [tw] OR cystadenofibromas [tw] OR cystadenoma [tw] OR cystadenomas [tw] OR cystoma [tw] OR cystomas [tw] OR cystosarcoma [tw] OR cystosarcomas [tw] OR dentinoma [tw] OR dentinomas [tw] OR dermatofibroma [tw] OR dermatofibromas [tw] OR dermatofibrosarcoma [tw] OR dermatofibrosarcomas [tw] OR dermoid [tw] OR desmoid [tw] OR desmoplastic [tw] OR dictyoma [tw] OR dysgerminoma [tw] OR dysgerminomas [tw] OR dyskeratoma [tw] OR dyskeratomas [tw] OR dysmyelopoiesis [tw] OR dysplasia [tw] OR dysplastic [tw] OR ectomesenchymoma [tw] OR ectomesenchymomas [tw] OR elastofibroma [tw] OR elastofibromas [tw] OR enchondroma [tw] OR enchondromas [tw] OR enchondromatosis [tw] OR endothelioma [tw] OR endotheliomas [tw] OR ependymoblastoma [tw] OR ependymoblastomas [tw] OR ependymoma [tw] OR ependymomas [tw] OR epidermoid [tw] OR epithelioma [tw] OR epitheliomas [tw] OR erythroleukaemia [tw] OR erythroleukaemias [tw] OR erythroleukemia [tw] OR erythroleukemias [tw] OR erythroplakia [tw] OR erythroplakias [tw] OR erythroplasia [tw] OR esthesioneuroblastoma [tw] OR esthesioneuroblastomas [tw] OR esthesioneuroepithelioma [tw] OR esthesioneuroepitheliomas [tw] OR exostosis [tw] OR fibroadenoma [tw] OR fibroadenomas [tw] OR fibroadenosarcoma [tw] OR fibroadenosis [tw] OR fibrochondrosarcoma [tw] OR fibroelastoma [tw] OR fibroelastomas [tw] OR fibroepithelioma [tw] OR fibroepitheliomas [tw] OR fibrofolliculoma [tw] OR fibrofolliculomas [tw] OR fibroid [tw] OR fibroids [tw] OR fibrolipoma [tw] OR fibrolipomas [tw] OR fibroliposarcoma [tw] OR fibroma [tw] OR fibromas [tw] OR fibromatosis [tw] OR fibromyoma [tw] OR fibromyomas [tw] OR fibromyxolipoma [tw] OR fibromyxoma [tw] OR fibromyxomas [tw] OR fibroodontoma [tw] OR fibroodontomas [tw] OR fibrosarcoma [tw] OR fibrosarcomas [tw] OR fibrothecoma [tw] OR fibrothecomas [tw] OR fibroxanthoma [tw] OR fibroxanthomas [tw] OR fibroxanthosarcoma [tw] OR fibroxanthosarcomas [tw] OR ganglioblastoma [tw] OR ganglioblastomas [tw] OR gangliocytoma [tw] OR gangliocytomas [tw] OR ganglioglioma [tw] OR gangliogliomas [tw] OR ganglioneuroblastoma [tw] OR ganglioneuroblastomas [tw] OR ganglioneurofibroma [tw] OR ganglioneurofibromas [tw] OR ganglioneuroma [tw] OR ganglioneuromas [tw] OR gastrinoma [tw] OR gastrinomas [tw] OR germinoma [tw] OR germinomas [tw] OR glioblastoma [tw] OR glioblastomas [tw] OR gliofibroma [tw] OR gliofibromas [tw] OR glioma [tw] OR gliomas [tw] OR gliomatosis [tw] OR glioneuroma [tw] OR glioneuromas [tw] OR gliosarcoma [tw] OR gliosarcomas [tw] OR glomangioma [tw] OR glomangiomas [tw] OR glomangiomatosis [tw] OR glomangiomyoma [tw] OR glomangiomyomas [tw] OR glomangiosarcoma [tw] OR glomangiosarcomas [tw] OR glucagonoma [tw] OR glucagonomas [tw] OR gonadoblastoma [tw] OR gonadoblastomas [tw] OR gonocytoma [tw] OR gonocytomas [tw] OR granuloma [tw] OR granulomas [tw] OR granulomatosis [tw] OR gynaecomastia [tw] OR gynandroblastoma [tw] OR gynecomastia [tw] OR haemangioblastoma [tw] OR haemangioblastomas [tw] OR haemangioma [tw] OR haemangiomas [tw] OR haemangiopericytoma [tw] OR haemangiopericytomas [tw] OR haemangiosarcoma [tw] OR haemangiosarcomas [tw] OR hamartoma [tw] OR hamartomas [tw] OR hemangioblastoma [tw] OR hemangioblastomas [tw] OR hemangioendothelioma [tw] OR hemangioendotheliomas [tw] OR hemangioendotheliosarcoma [tw] OR hemangioendotheliosarcomas [tw] OR hemangioma [tw] OR hemangiomas [tw] OR hemangiomatosis [tw] OR hemangiopericytoma [tw] OR hemangiopericytomas [tw] OR hemangioperithelioma [tw] OR hemangiosarcoma [tw] OR hemangiosarcomas [tw] OR hepatoblastoma [tw] OR hepatoblastomas [tw] OR hepatocarcinoma [tw] OR hepatocarcinomas [tw] OR hepatocholangiocarcinoma [tw] OR hepatocholangiocarcinomas [tw] OR hepatoma [tw] OR hepatomas [tw] OR hibernoma [tw] OR hibernomas [tw] OR hidradenoma [tw] OR hidradenomas [tw] OR hidrocystoma [tw] OR hidrocystomas [tw] OR histiocytoma [tw] OR histiocytomas [tw] OR hodgkin [tw] OR hodgkins [tw] OR hydatidiform [tw] OR hydradenoma [tw] OR hydradenomas [tw] OR hypernephroma [tw] OR hypernephromas [tw] OR immunochemoradiotherapy [tw] OR immunochemotherapies [tw] OR immunochemotherapy [tw] OR immunocytoma [tw] OR immunocytoma [tw] OR immunoradiotherapy [tw] OR insulinomas [tw] OR kasabach-merritt [tw] OR keratoacanthoma [tw] OR keratoacanthomas [tw] OR keratosis [tw] OR leiomyoblastoma [tw] OR leiomyoblastomas [tw] OR leiomyofibroma [tw] OR leiomyofibromas [tw] OR leiomyoma [tw] OR leiomyomas [tw] OR leiomyomatosis [tw] OR leiomyosarcoma [tw] OR leiomyosarcomas [tw] OR leukaemia [tw] OR leukaemias [tw] OR leukemia [tw] OR leukemias [tw] OR leukoplakia [tw] OR leukoplakias [tw] OR lipoadenoma [tw] OR lipoadenomas [tw] OR lipoblastoma [tw] OR lipoblastomas [tw] OR lipoblastomatosis [tw] OR lipoma [tw] OR lipomas [tw] OR lipomatosis [tw] OR liposarcoma [tw] OR liposarcomas [tw] OR luteinoma [tw] OR luteoma [tw] OR luteomas [tw] OR lymphangioendothelioma [tw] OR lymphangioendotheliomas [tw] OR lymphangioleiomyomatosis [tw] OR lymphangioma [tw] OR lymphangiomas [tw] OR lymphangiomatosis [tw] OR lymphangiomyoma [tw] OR lymphangiomyomas [tw] OR lymphangiomyomatosis [tw] OR lymphangiosarcoma [tw] OR lymphangiosarcomas [tw] OR lymphoepithelioma [tw] OR lymphoepitheliomas [tw] OR lymphoma [tw] OR lymphomas [tw] OR lymphoproliferation [tw] OR lymphoproliferations [tw] OR lymphoproliferative [tw] OR lymphoscintigraphic [tw] OR lymphoscintigraphy [tw] OR macroglobulinemia [tw] OR macroglobulinemias [tw] OR macroprolactinoma [tw] OR malignancies [tw] OR malignancy [tw] OR malignant [tw] OR maltoma [tw] OR maltomas [tw] OR mammogram [tw] OR mammograms [tw] OR masculinovoblastoma [tw] OR mastocytoma [tw] OR mastocytomas [tw] OR mastocytosis [tw] OR mcf-7 [tw] OR medulloblastoma [tw] OR medulloblastomas [tw] OR medullocytoma [tw] OR medullocytomas [tw] OR medulloepithelioma [tw] OR medulloepitheliomas [tw] OR medullomyoblastoma [tw] OR medullomyoblastomas [tw] OR melanoacanthoma [tw] OR melanoacanthomas [tw] OR melanoameloblastoma [tw] OR melanocytoma [tw] OR melanocytomas [tw] OR melanoma [tw] OR melanomas [tw] OR melanomatosis [tw] OR meningioblastoma [tw] OR meningioma [tw] OR meningiomas [tw] OR meningiomatosis [tw] OR mesenchymoma [tw] OR mesenchymomas [tw] OR mesonephroma [tw] OR mesonephromas [tw] OR mesothelioma [tw] OR mesotheliomas [tw] OR metaplasia [tw] OR metastases [tw] OR metastasis [tw] OR metastatic [tw] OR microglioma [tw] OR microgliomas [tw] OR micrometastases [tw] OR micrometastasis [tw] OR mucositis [tw] OR myelodysplasia [tw] OR myelodysplasias [tw] OR myelodysplastic [tw] OR myelofibrosis [tw] OR myelolipoma [tw] OR myelolipomas [tw] OR myeloma [tw] OR myelomas [tw] OR myelomatosis [tw] OR myeloproliferation [tw] OR myeloproliferations [tw] OR myeloproliferative [tw] OR myelosuppression [tw] OR myoblastoma [tw] OR myoblastomas [tw] OR myoepithelioma [tw] OR myoepitheliomas [tw] OR myofibroblastoma [tw] OR myofibroblastomas [tw] OR myofibroma [tw] OR myofibromas [tw] OR myofibromatosis [tw] OR myofibrosarcoma [tw] OR myofibrosarcomas [tw] OR myolipoma [tw] OR myolipomas [tw] OR myoma [tw] OR myomas [tw] OR myosarcoma [tw] OR myosarcomas [tw] OR myxofibroma [tw] OR myxofibromas [tw] OR myxolipoma [tw] OR myxolipomas [tw] OR myxoliposarcoma [tw] OR myxoma [tw] OR myxomas [tw] OR naevus [tw] OR neoplasia [tw] OR neoplasia [tw] OR neoplasm [tw] OR neoplasms [tw] OR neoplastic [tw] OR nephroblastoma [tw] OR nephroblastomas [tw] OR neurilemmoma [tw] OR neurilemmomas [tw] OR neurilemmomatosis [tw] OR neurilemoma [tw] OR neurilemomas [tw] OR neurinoma [tw] OR neurinomas [tw] OR neuroblastoma [tw] OR neuroblastomas [tw] OR neurocytoma [tw] OR neurocytomas [tw] OR neuroepithelioma [tw] OR neuroepitheliomas [tw] OR neurofibroma [tw] OR neurofibromas [tw] OR neurofibromatosis [tw] OR neurofibrosarcoma [tw] OR neurofibrosarcomas [tw] OR neurolipocytoma [tw] OR neuroma [tw] OR neuromas [tw] OR neuronevus [tw] OR neurothekeoma [tw] OR neurothekeomas [tw] OR nevus [tw] OR nonhodgkin [tw] OR nonhodgkins [tw] OR nonseminoma [tw] OR nonseminomas [tw] OR nonseminomatous [tw] OR odontoameloblastoma [tw] OR odontoma [tw] OR oligoastrocytoma [tw] OR oligoastrocytomas [tw] OR oligodendroglioma [tw] OR oligodendrogliomas [tw] OR oncocytoma [tw] OR oncocytomas [tw] OR oncogen [tw] OR oncogene [tw] OR oncogenes [tw] OR oncogenesis [tw] OR oncogenic [tw] OR oncogens [tw] OR oncologic [tw] OR oncologist [tw] OR oncologists [tw] OR oncology [tw] OR oncoprotein [tw] OR oncoproteins [tw] OR opsoclonus-myoclonus [tw] OR orchioblastoma [tw] OR orchioblastomas [tw] OR osteoblastoma [tw] OR osteoblastomas [tw] OR osteochondroma [tw] OR osteochondromas [tw] OR osteochondrosarcoma [tw] OR osteochondrosarcomas [tw] OR osteoclastoma [tw] OR osteoclastomas [tw] OR osteofibrosarcoma [tw] OR osteoma [tw] OR osteomas [tw] OR osteosarcoma [tw] OR osteosarcomas [tw] OR pancreatoblastoma [tw] OR pancreatoblastomas [tw] OR papilloma [tw] OR papillomas [tw] OR papillomata [tw] OR papillomatosis [tw] OR papillomavirus [tw] OR papillomaviruses [tw] OR parachordoma [tw] OR parachordomas [tw] OR paraganglioma [tw] OR paragangliomas [tw] OR paraneoplastic [tw] OR perineurioma [tw] OR perineuriomas [tw] OR phaeochromocytoma [tw] OR phaeochromocytomas [tw] OR pheochromoblastoma [tw] OR pheochromoblastomas [tw] OR pheochromocytoma [tw] OR pheochromocytomas [tw] OR pilomatricoma [tw] OR pilomatricomas [tw] OR pilomatrixoma [tw] OR pilomatrixomas [tw] OR pinealblastoma [tw] OR pinealoblastoma [tw] OR pinealoblastomas [tw] OR pinealoma [tw] OR pinealomas [tw] OR pineoblastoma [tw] OR pineoblastomas [tw] OR pineocytoma [tw] OR pineocytomas [tw] OR plasmacytoma [tw] OR plasmacytomas [tw] OR pneumoblastoma [tw] OR pneumoblastomas [tw] OR pneumocytoma [tw] OR polyembryoma [tw] OR polyembryomas [tw] OR polyhistioma [tw] OR polyhistiomas [tw] OR polyp [tw] OR polyposis [tw] OR polyps [tw] OR porocarcinoma [tw] OR porocarcinomas [tw] OR poroma [tw] OR poromas [tw] OR precancer [tw] OR precancerous [tw] OR preleukaemia [tw] OR preleukaemias [tw] OR preleukemia [tw] OR preleukemias [tw] OR premalignant [tw] OR preneoplastic [tw] OR prolactinoma [tw] OR prolactinomas [tw] OR protooncogene [tw] OR protooncogenes [tw] OR pseudotumor [tw] OR pseudotumors [tw] OR radiochemotherapy [tw] OR radioimmunotherapies [tw] OR radioimmunotherapy [tw] OR reninoma [tw] OR reninomas [tw] OR reticuloendothelioma [tw] OR reticuloendotheliomas [tw] OR reticulohistiocytoma [tw] OR reticulohistiocytomas [tw] OR reticulosis [tw] OR retinoblastoma [tw] OR retinoblastomas [tw] OR rhabdomyoma [tw] OR rhabdomyomas [tw] OR rhabdomyosarcoma [tw] OR rhabdomyosarcomas [tw] OR rhabdosarcoma [tw] OR rhabdosarcomas [tw] OR sarcoma [tw] OR sarcomas [tw] OR sarcomatosis [tw] OR schwannoma [tw] OR schwannomas [tw] OR schwannomatosis [tw] OR seminoma [tw] OR seminomas [tw] OR seminomatous [tw] OR somatostatinoma [tw] OR somatostatinomas [tw] OR somatotropinoma [tw] OR somatotropinomas [tw] OR spermatocytoma [tw] OR spiradenoma [tw] OR spiradenomas [tw] OR spongioblastoma [tw] OR spongioblastomas [tw] OR steatocystoma [tw] OR steatocystomas [tw] OR subependymoma [tw] OR subependymomas [tw] OR syringadenoma [tw] OR syringadenomas [tw] OR syringocystadenoma [tw] OR syringocystadenomas [tw] OR syringoma [tw] OR syringomas [tw] OR teratocarcinoma [tw] OR teratocarcinomas [tw] OR teratoma [tw] OR teratomas [tw] OR thecoma [tw] OR thecomas [tw] OR thymolipoma [tw] OR thymolipomas [tw] OR thymoma [tw] OR thymomas [tw] OR trichilemmoma [tw] OR trichilemmomas [tw] OR trichoadenoma [tw] OR trichoblastoma [tw] OR trichoblastomas [tw] OR trichodiscoma [tw] OR trichodiscomas [tw] OR trichoepithelioma [tw] OR trichoepitheliomas [tw] OR trichofolliculoma [tw] OR trichofolliculomas [tw] OR tricholemmoma [tw] OR tricholemmomas [tw] OR tumor [tw] OR tumorgenesis [tw] OR tumorgenic [tw] OR tumorigenesis [tw] OR tumorigenic [tw] OR tumorogenesis [tw] OR tumorogenic [tw] OR tumors [tw] OR tumour [tw] OR tumours [tw] OR vipoma [tw] OR vipomas [tw] OR waldenstrom [tw] OR waldenstroms [tw] OR xanthoastrocytoma [tw] OR xanthoastrocytomas [tw] OR xanthofibroma [tw] OR xanthofibromas [tw] OR xanthogranuloma [tw] OR xanthogranulomas [tw] OR xanthoma [tw] OR xanthomas [tw] OR xanthosarcoma [tw] OR xanthosarcomas [tw] OR Acta Oncol [ta] OR Acta Radiol Oncol Radiat Phys Biol [ta] OR Acta Radiol Oncol [ta] OR Adv Cancer Res [ta] OR Adv Immun Cancer Ther [ta] OR Ai Zheng [ta] OR Am J Cancer [ta] OR Am J Clin Oncol [ta] OR Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book [ta] OR Anal Cell Pathol [ta] OR Ann Oncol [ta] OR Ann Surg Oncol [ta] OR Anti cancer Drugs [ta] OR Anticancer Agents Med Chem [ta] OR Anticancer Drug Des [ta] OR Anticancer Res [ta] OR Asia Pac J Clin Oncol [ta] OR BMC Cancer [ta] OR Baillieres Clin Oncol [ta] OR Biochim Biophys Acta [ta] OR Blood Cancer J [ta] OR Br J Cancer Suppl [ta] OR Br J Cancer [ta] OR Brain Tumor Pathol [ta] OR Breast Cancer Res Treat [ta] OR Breast Cancer Res [ta] OR Breast Cancer [ta] OR Breast J [ta] OR Bull Assoc Fr Etud Cancer [ta] OR Bull Cancer Radiother [ta] OR Bull Cancer [ta] OR CA Cancer J Clin [ta] OR Can J Oncol [ta] OR Can Oncol Nurs J [ta] OR Cancer Biochem Biophys [ta] OR Cancer Biol Ther [ta] OR Cancer Biomark [ta] OR Cancer Biother Radiopharm [ta] OR Cancer Biother [ta] OR Cancer Bull [ta] OR Cancer Causes Control [ta] OR Cancer Cell Int [ta] OR Cancer Cell [ta] OR Cancer Cells [ta] OR Cancer Chemother Biol Response Modif [ta] OR Cancer Chemother Pharmacol [ta] OR Cancer Chemother Rep 2 [ta] OR Cancer Chemother Rep 3 [ta] OR Cancer Chemother Rep [ta] OR Cancer Clin Trials [ta] OR Cancer Commun [ta] OR Cancer Control [ta] OR Cancer Cytol [ta] OR Cancer Cytopathol [ta] OR Cancer Detect Prev Suppl [ta] OR Cancer Detect Prev [ta] OR Cancer Discov [ta] OR Cancer Drug Deliv [ta] OR Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev [ta] OR Cancer Epidemiol [ta] OR Cancer Gene Ther [ta] OR Cancer Genet [ta] OR Cancer Genet Cytogenet [ta] OR Cancer Genomics Proteomics [ta] OR Cancer Imaging [ta] OR Cancer Immun [ta] OR Cancer Immunol Immunother [ta] OR Cancer Immunol Res [ta] OR Cancer Inform [ta] OR Cancer Invest [ta] OR Cancer J Sci Am [ta] OR Cancer J [ta] OR Cancer Lett [ta] OR Cancer Med [ta] OR Cancer Metastasis Rev [ta] OR Cancer Microenviron [ta] OR Cancer Nurs [ta] OR Cancer Pract [ta] OR Cancer Prev Control [ta] OR Cancer Prev Res Phila [ta] OR Cancer Radiother [ta] OR Cancer Res Treat [ta] OR Cancer Res [ta] OR Cancer Sci [ta] OR Cancer Surv [ta] OR Cancer Treat Rep [ta] OR Cancer Treat Res [ta] OR Cancer Treat Rev [ta] OR Cancer [ta] OR Carcinogenesis [ta] OR Cell Growth Differ [ta] OR Cell Oncol Dordr [ta] OR Chin Clin Oncol [ta] OR Chin J Cancer [ta] OR Chin J Cancer [ta] OR Clin Breast Cancer [ta] OR Clin Cancer Res [ta] OR Clin Colorectal Cancer [ta] OR Clin Exp Metastasis [ta] OR Clin J Oncol Nurs [ta] OR Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk [ta] OR Clin Lymphoma [ta] OR Clin Oncol R Coll Radiol [ta] OR Clin Oncol [ta] OR Clin Transl Oncol [ta] OR CNS Oncol [ta] OR Contemp Oncol [ta] OR Crit Rev Oncog [ta] OR Crit Rev Oncol Hematol [ta] OR Curr Cancer Drug Targets [ta] OR Curr Oncol Rep [ta] OR Curr Oncol [ta] OR Curr Opin Oncol [ta] OR Curr Probl Cancer [ta] OR Curr Treat Options Oncol [ta] OR Dimens Oncol Nurs [ta] OR Drug Resist Updat [ta] OR Eksp Onkol [ta] OR Endocr Relat Cancer [ta] OR Eur J Cancer B Oral Oncol [ta] OR Eur J Cancer Care Engl [ta] OR Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol [ta] OR Eur J Cancer Prev [ta] OR Eur J Cancer [ta] OR Eur J Gynaecol Oncol [ta] OR Eur J Surg Oncol [ta] OR Front Radiat Ther Oncol [ta] OR Future Oncol [ta] OR Gan No Rinsho [ta] OR Gan To Kagaku Ryoho [ta] OR Gastric Cancer [ta] OR Gastrointest Cancer Res [ta] OR Genes Chromosomes Cancer [ta] OR Gulf J Oncolog [ta] OR Gynecol Oncol [ta] OR Head Neck Oncol [ta] OR Hematol Oncol Clin North Am [ta] OR Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther [ta] OR Hematol Oncol [ta] OR Hered Cancer Clin Pract [ta] OR Horm Cancer [ta] OR IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Hum Suppl [ta] OR IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Hum [ta] OR IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Man [ta] OR IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum Suppl [ta] OR IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum [ta] OR IARC Sci Publ [ta] OR Important Adv Oncol [ta] OR Indian J Cancer [ta] OR Infect Agent Cancer [ta] OR Innov Oncol Nurs [ta] OR Int Adv Surg Oncol [ta] OR Int J Biol Markers [ta] OR Int J Cancer Suppl [ta] OR Int J Cancer [ta] OR Int J Clin Oncol [ta] OR Int J Gastrointest Cancer [ta] OR Int J Gynecol Cancer [ta] OR Int J Hyperthermia [ta] OR Int J Oncol [ta] OR Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys [ta] OR Int J Surg Oncol [ta] OR Integr Cancer Ther [ta] OR Invasion Metastasis [ta] OR Invest New Drugs [ta] OR J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol [ta] OR J Assoc Pediatr Oncol Nurses [ta] OR J Cancer Educ [ta] OR J Cancer Epidemiol Prev [ta] OR J Cancer Res Clin Oncol [ta] OR J Cancer Res [ta] OR J Cancer Surviv [ta] OR J Chemother [ta] OR J Clin Oncol [ta] OR J Community Support Oncol [ta] OR J Dermatol Surg Oncol [ta] OR J Egypt Natl Canc Inst [ta] OR J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol [ta] OR J Exp Clin Cancer Res [ta] OR J Exp Ther Oncol [ta] OR J Geriatr Oncol [ta] OR J Gynecol Oncol [ta] OR J Hematol Oncol [ta] OR J Immunother Emphasis Tumor Immunol [ta] OR J Immunother [ta] OR J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia [ta] OR J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol [ta] OR J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr [ta] OR J Natl Cancer Inst [ta] OR J Natl Compr Canc Netw [ta] OR J Neurooncol [ta] OR J Oncol Manag [ta] OR J Oncol Pract [ta] OR J Oncol [ta] OR J Pediatr Hematol Oncol [ta] OR J Pediatr Oncol Nurs [ta] OR J Soc Integr Oncol [ta] OR J Support Oncol [ta] OR J Surg Oncol Suppl [ta] OR J Surg Oncol [ta] OR J Thorac Oncol [ta] OR Jaarb Kankeronderz Kankerbestrijd Ned [ta] OR JAMA Oncol [ta] OR Jpn J Cancer Res [ta] OR Jpn J Clin Oncol [ta] OR Klin Onkol [ta] OR Lancet Oncol [ta] OR Leuk Lymphoma [ta] OR Leuk Res [ta] OR Leukemia [ta] OR Lung Cancer [ta] OR Lutte Cancer [ta] OR Magy Onkol [ta] OR Med Oncol Tumor Pharmacother [ta] OR Med Oncol [ta] OR Med Pediatr Oncol Suppl [ta] OR Med Pediatr Oncol [ta] OR Melanoma Res [ta] OR Mol Cancer Res [ta] OR Mol Cancer Ther [ta] OR Mol Cancer [ta] OR Mol Oncol [ta] OR Monogr Neoplast Dis Var Sites [ta] OR NCI Monogr [ta] OR Nat Rev Cancer [ta] OR Nat Rev Clin Oncol [ta] OR Natl Cancer Inst Monogr [ta] OR Natl Cancer Inst Res Rep [ta] OR Neoplasia [ta] OR Neoplasma [ta] OR Neuro oncol [ta] OR Nippon Gan Chiryo Gakkai Shi [ta] OR Noshuyo Byori [ta] OR Nutr Cancer [ta] OR ONS Connect [ta] OR ONS News [ta] OR Oncogene Res [ta] OR Oncogene [ta] OR Oncol Nurs Forum [ta] OR Oncol Rep [ta] OR Oncol Res [ta] OR Oncol Res Treat [ta] OR Oncologist [ta] OR Oncology Huntingt [ta] OR Oncology [ta] OR Oncotarget [ta] OR Onkologie [ta] OR Open Clin Cancer J [ta] OR Oral Oncol [ta] OR Pathol Oncol Res [ta] OR Pediatr Blood Cancer [ta] OR Pediatr Hematol Oncol [ta] OR Pigment Cell Melanoma Res [ta] OR Pract Radiat Oncol [ta] OR Princess Takamatsu Symp [ta] OR Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res [ta] OR Proc Can Cancer Conf [ta] OR Proc Natl Cancer Conf [ta] OR Prog Clin Cancer [ta] OR Prog Exp Tumor Res [ta] OR Prog Tumor Res [ta] OR Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis [ta] OR Psychooncology [ta] OR Radiat Oncol Investig [ta] OR Radiat Oncol [ta] OR Radiother Oncol [ta] OR Recent Results Cancer Res [ta] OR Rep Carcinog Backgr Doc [ta] OR Rev Mex Cir Ginecol Cancer [ta] OR S Afr Cancer Bull [ta] OR Sci Rep Res Inst Tohoku Univ Med [ta] OR Sel Cancer Ther [ta] OR Semin Cancer Biol [ta] OR Semin Oncol Nurs [ta] OR Semin Oncol [ta] OR Semin Radiat Oncol [ta] OR Semin Surg Oncol [ta] OR Semin Urol Oncol [ta] OR Strahlenther Onkol [ta] OR Suppl J Med Oncol Tumor Pharmacother [ta] OR Suppl Tumori [ta] OR Support Cancer Ther [ta] OR Support Care Cancer [ta] OR Surg Oncol Clin N Am [ta] OR Surg Oncol [ta] OR Symp Fundam Cancer Res [ta] OR Target Oncol [ta] OR Technol Cancer Res Treat [ta] OR Transl Oncol [ta] OR Tumor Res [ta] OR Tumori [ta] OR Tumour Biol [ta] OR Urol Oncol [ta] OR Vet Comp Oncol [ta] OR Vopr Onkol [ta] OR World J Surg Oncol [ta] OR Z Krebsforsch Klin Onkol Cancer Res Clin Oncol [ta] OR Z Krebsforsch [ta] OR Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi [ta] OR Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi [ta].

Task Force Member Literature Search

The search of literature was on terms that included: cystic fibrosis, colonoscopy preparation, bowel preparation, bowel (or colonoscopy) preparation guidelines, suboptimal bowel (or colonoscopy) preparation, optimal bowel (or colonoscopy) preparation, MiraLax bowel preparation, difficult bowel preparation, side effects, timing of bowel preparation, education and bowel preparation.