Endocrine Treatment of Gender-dysphoric/Gender-Incongruent Persons

An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline

Wylie C. Hembree; Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis; Louis Gooren; Sabine E. Hannema; Walter J. Meyer; M. Hassan Murad; Stephen M. Rosenthal; Joshua D. Safer; Vin Tangpricha; Guy G. T'Sjoen


J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102(11):3869-3903. 

In This Article

Evaluation of Youth and Adults

Gender-affirming treatment is a multidisciplinary effort. After evaluation, education, and diagnosis, treatment may include mental health care, hormone therapy, and/or surgical therapy. Together with an MHP, hormoneprescribing clinicians should examine the psychosocial impact of the potential changes on people's lives, including mental health, friends, family, jobs, and their role in society. Transgender individuals should be encouraged to experience living in the newgender role and assesswhether this improves their quality of life. Although the focus of this guideline is gender-affirming hormone therapy, collaboration with appropriate professionals responsible for each aspect of treatment maximizes a successful outcome.

Diagnostic Assessment and Mental Health Care

GD/gender incongruence may be accompanied with psychological or psychiatric problems.[43–51] It is therefore necessary that clinicians who prescribe hormones and are involved in diagnosis and psychosocial assessment meet the following criteria: (1) are competent in using the DSM and/or the ICD for diagnostic purposes, (2) are able to diagnose GD/gender incongruence and make a distinction between GD/gender incongruence and conditions that have similar features (e.g., body dysmorphic disorder), (3) are trained in diagnosing psychiatric conditions, (4) undertake or refer for appropriate treatment, (5) are able to do a psychosocial assessment of the patient's understanding, mental health, and social conditions that can impact genderaffirming hormone therapy, and (6) regularly attend relevant professional meetings.

Because of the psychological vulnerability of many individuals with GD/gender incongruence, it is important that mental health care is available before, during, and sometimes also after transitioning. For children and adolescents, an MHP who has training/experience in child and adolescent gender development (as well as child and adolescent psychopathology) should make the diagnosis, because assessing GD/gender incongruence in children and adolescents is often extremely complex.

During assessment, the clinician obtains information from the individual seeking gender-affirming treatment. In the case of adolescents, the clinician also obtains information from the parents or guardians regarding various aspects of the child's general and psychosexual development and current functioning. On the basis of this information, the clinician:

  • decides whether the individual fulfills criteria for treatment (see Table 2 and Table 3) for GD/gender incongruence (DSM-5) or transsexualism (DSM-5 and/or ICD-10);

  • informs the individual about the possibilities and limitations of various kinds of treatment (hormonal/surgical and nonhormonal), and if medical treatment is desired, provides correct information to prevent unrealistically high expectations;

  • assesses whether medical interventions may result in unfavorable psychological and social outcomes.

In cases inwhich severe psychopathology, circumstances, or both seriously interfere with the diagnostic work ormake satisfactory treatment unlikely, clinicians should assist the adolescent in managing these other issues. Literature on postoperative regret suggests that besides poor quality of surgery, severe psychiatric comorbidity and lack of support may interfere with positive outcomes.[52–56]

For adolescents, the diagnostic procedure usually includes a complete psychodiagnostic assessment[57] and an assessment of the decision-making capability of the youth. An evaluation to assess the family's ability to endure stress, give support, and deal with the complexities of the adolescent's situation should be part of the diagnostic phase.[58]

Social Transitioning

A change in gender expression and role (which may involve living part time or full time in another gender role that is consistent with one's gender identity) may test the person's resolve, the capacity to function in the affirmed gender, and the adequacy of social, economic, and psychological supports. It assists both the individual and the clinician in their judgments about how to proceed.[16] During social transitioning, the person's feelings about the social transformation (including coping with the responses of others) is a major focus of the counseling. The optimal timing for social transitioning may differ between individuals. Sometimes people wait until they start gender-affirming hormone treatment to make social transitioning easier, but individuals increasingly start social transitioning long before they receive medically supervised, gender-affirming hormone treatment.


Adolescents and adults seeking gender-affirming hormone treatment and surgery should satisfy certain criteria before proceeding.[16] Criteria for genderaffirming hormone therapy for adults are in Table 4, and criteria for gender-affirming hormone therapy for adolescents are in Table 5. Follow-up studies in adults meeting these criteria indicate a high satisfaction rate with treatment.[59] However, the quality of evidence is usually low. A few follow-up studies on adolescents who fulfilled these criteria also indicated good treatment results.[60–63]