Endocrine Treatment of Gender-dysphoric/Gender-Incongruent Persons

An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline

Wylie C. Hembree; Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis; Louis Gooren; Sabine E. Hannema; Walter J. Meyer; M. Hassan Murad; Stephen M. Rosenthal; Joshua D. Safer; Vin Tangpricha; Guy G. T'Sjoen


J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102(11):3869-3903. 

In This Article

Adverse Outcome Prevention and Long-term Care

Hormone therapy for transgender males and females confers many of the same risks associated with sex hormone replacement therapy in nontransgender persons. The risks arise from and are worsened by inadvertent or intentional use of supraphysiologic doses of sex hormones, as well as use of inadequate doses of sex hormones to maintain normal physiology.[131,139]

1. We suggest regular clinical evaluation for physical changes and potential adverse changes in response to sex steroid hormones and laboratory monitoring of sex steroid hormone levels every 3 months during the first year of hormone therapy for transgender males and females and then once or twice yearly. (2 |⊕⊕⊖⊖)


Pretreatment screening and appropriate regular medical monitoring are recommended for both transgender males and females during the endocrine transition and periodically thereafter.[26,155] Clinicians should monitor weight and blood pressure, conduct physical exams, and assess routine health questions, such as tobacco use, symptoms of depression, and risk of adverse events such as deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism and other adverse effects of sex steroids.

Transgender males.Table 14 contains a standard monitoring plan for transgender males on testosterone therapy.[154,159] Key issues include maintaining testosterone levels in the physiologic normal male range and avoiding adverse events resulting from excess testosterone therapy, particularly erythrocytosis, sleep apnea, hypertension, excessive weight gain, salt retention, lipid changes, and excessive or cystic acne.[135]

Because oral 17-alkylated testosterone is not recommended, serious hepatic toxicity is not anticipated with parenteral or transdermal testosterone use.[163,164] Past concerns regarding liver toxicity with testosterone have been alleviated with subsequent reports that indicate the risk of serious liver disease is minimal.[144,165,166]

Transgender females.Table 15 contains a standard monitoring plan for transgender females on estrogens, gonadotropin suppression, or antiandrogens.[160] Key issues include avoiding supraphysiologic doses or blood levels of estrogen that may lead to increased risk for thromboembolic disease, liver dysfunction, and hypertension. Clinicians should monitor serum estradiol levels using laboratories participating in external quality control, as measurements of estradiol in blood can be very challenging.[167]

VTE may be a serious complication. A study reported a 20-fold increase in venous thromboembolic disease in a large cohort of Dutch transgender subjects.[161] This increase may have been associatedwith the use of the synthetic estrogen, ethinyl estradiol.[149] The incidence decreased when clinicians stopped administering ethinyl estradiol.[161] Thus, the use of synthetic estrogens and conjugated estrogens is undesirable because of the inability to regulate doses by measuring serum levels and the risk of thromboembolic disease. In a German gender clinic, deep vein thrombosis occurred in 1 of 60 of transgender females treated with a GnRH analog and oral estradiol.[141] The patient who developed a deep vein thrombosis was found to have a homozygous C677 T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene. In an Austrian gender clinic, administering genderaffirming hormones to 162 transgender females and 89 transgender males was not associated with VTE, despite an 8.0% and 5.6% incidence of thrombophilia.[159] A more recent multinational study reported only 10 cases of VTE from a cohort of 1073 subjects.[168] Thrombophilia screening of transgender persons initiating hormone treatment should be restricted to those with a personal or family history of VTE.[159] Monitoring D-dimer levels during treatment is not recommended.[169]

2. We suggest periodically monitoring prolactin levels in transgender females treated with estrogens. (2 |⊕⊕⊖⊖)


Estrogen therapy can increase the growth of pituitary lactrotroph cells. There have been several reports of prolactinomas occurring after long-term, high-dose estrogen therapy.[170–173] Up to 20% of transgender females treated with estrogens may have elevations in prolactin levels associated with enlargement of the pituitary gland.[156] In most cases, the serum prolactin levels will return to the normal range with a reduction or discontinuation of the estrogen therapy or discontinuation of cyproterone acetate.[157,174,175]

The onset and time course of hyperprolactinemia during estrogen treatment are not known. Clinicians should measure prolactin levels at baseline and then at least annually during the transition period and every 2 years thereafter. Given that only a few case studies reported prolactinomas, and prolactinomas were not reported in large cohorts of estrogen-treated persons, the risk is likely to be very low. Because the major presenting findings of microprolactinomas (hypogonadism and sometimes gynecomastia) are not apparent in transgender females, clinicians may perform radiologic examinations of the pituitary in those patients whose prolactin levels persistently increase despite stable or reduced estrogen levels. Some transgender individuals receive psychotropic medications that can increase prolactin levels.[174]

3. We suggest that clinicians evaluate transgender persons treated with hormones for cardiovascular risk factors using fasting lipid profiles, diabetes screening, and/or other diagnostic tools. (2 |⊕⊕⊖⊖)


Transgender males. Administering testosterone to transgender males results in a more atherogenic lipid profile with lowered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and higher triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values.[176–179] Studies of the effect of testosterone on insulin sensitivity have mixed results.[178,180] A randomized, open-label uncontrolled safety study of transgender males treated with testosterone undecanoate demonstrated no insulin resistance after 1 year.[181,182] Numerous studies have demonstrated the effects of sex hormone treatment on the cardiovascular system.[160,179,183,184] Long-term studies from The Netherlands found no increased risk for cardiovascular mortality.[161] Likewise, a meta-analysis of 19 randomized trials in nontransgender males on testosterone replacement showed no increased incidence of cardiovascular events.[185] A systematic review of the literature found that data were insufficient (due to very low–quality evidence) to allow a meaningful assessment of patient-important outcomes, such as death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or VTE in transgender males.[176] Future research is needed to ascertain the potential harm of hormonal therapies.[176] Clinicians should manage cardiovascular risk factors as they emerge according to established guidelines.[186]

Transgender females. A prospective study of transgender females found favorable changes in lipid parameters with increased high-density lipoprotein and decreased low-density lipoprotein concentrations.[178] However, increased weight, blood pressure, and markers of insulin resistance attenuated these favorable lipid changes. In a meta-analysis, only serum triglycerides were higher at ≥24 months without changes in other parameters.[187] The largest cohort of transgender females (mean age 41 years, followed for a mean of 10 years) showed no increase in cardiovascular mortality despite a 32% rate of tobacco use.[161]

Thus, there is limited evidence to determine whether estrogen is protective or detrimental on lipid and glucose metabolism in transgender females.[176] With aging, there is usually an increase of body weight. Therefore, as with nontransgender individuals, clinicians should monitor and manage glucose and lipid metabolism and blood pressure regularly according to established guidelines.[186]

4. We recommend that clinicians obtain BMD measurements when risk factors for osteoporosis exist, specifically in those who stop sex hormone therapy after gonadectomy. (1 |⊕⊕⊖⊖)


Transgender males. Baseline bone mineral measurements in transgender males are generally in the expected range for their pretreatment gender.[188] However, adequate dosing of testosterone is important to maintain bone mass in transgender males.[189,190] In one study,[190] serum LH levels were inversely related to BMD, suggesting that low levels of sex hormones were associated with bone loss. Thus, LH levels in the normal range may serve as an indicator of the adequacy of sex steroid administration to preserve bone mass. The protective effect of testosterone may be mediated by peripheral conversion to estradiol, both systemically and locally in the bone.

Transgender females. A baseline study of BMD reported T scores less than − 2.5 in 16% of transgender females.[191] In aging males, studies suggest that serum estradiol more positively correlates with BMD than does testosterone[192,193] and is more important for peak bone mass.[194] Estrogen preserves BMD in transgender females who continue on estrogen and antiandrogen therapies.[188,190,191,195,196]

Fracture data in transgender males and females are not available. Transgender persons who have undergone gonadectomy may choose not to continue consistent sex steroid treatment after hormonal and surgical sex reassignment, thereby becoming at risk for bone loss. There have been no studies to determine whether clinicians should use the sex assigned at birth or affirmed gender for assessing osteoporosis (e.g., when using the FRAX tool). Although some researchers use the sex assigned at birth (with the assumption that bone mass has usually peaked for transgender people who initiate hormones in early adulthood), this should be assessed on a case-by-case basis until there are more data available. This assumption will be further complicated by the increasing prevalence of transgender people who undergo hormonal transition at a pubertal age or soon after puberty. Sex for comparison within risk assessment tools may be based on the age at which hormones were initiated and the length of exposure to hormones. In some cases, it may be reasonable to assess risk using both the male and female calculators and using an intermediate value. Because all subjects underwent normal pubertal development, with known effects on bone size, reference values for birth sex were used for all participants.[154]

5. We suggest that transgender females with no known increased risk of breast cancer follow breast-screening guidelines recommended for those designated female at birth. (2 |⊕⊕⊖⊖)

6. We suggest that transgender females treated with estrogens follow individualized screening according to personal risk for prostatic disease and prostate cancer. (2 |⊕⊖⊖⊖)


Studies have reported a few cases of breast cancer in transgender females.[197–200] A Dutch study of 1800 transgender females followed for a mean of 15 years (range of 1 30 years) found one case of breast cancer. The Women's Health Initiative study reported that females taking conjugated equine estrogen without progesterone for 7 years did not have an increased risk of breast cancer as compared with females taking placebo.[137]

In transgender males, a large retrospective study conducted at the U.S. Veterans Affairs medical health system identified seven breast cancers.[194] The authors reported that this was not above the expected rate of breast cancers in cisgender females in this cohort. Furthermore, they did report one breast cancer that developed in a transgender male patient after mastectomy, supporting the fact that breast cancer can occur even after mastectomy. Indeed, there have been case reports of breast cancer developing in subareolar tissue in transgender males, which occurred after mastectomy.[201,202]

Women with primary hypogonadism (Turner syndrome) treated with estrogen replacement exhibited a significantly decreased incidence of breast cancer as compared with national standardized incidence ratios.[203,204] These studies suggest that estrogen therapy does not increase the risk of breast cancer in the short term (<20 to 30 years). We need long-term studies to determine the actual risk, as well as the role of screening mammograms. Regular examinations and gynecologic advice should determine monitoring for breast cancer.

Prostate cancer is very rare before the age of 40, especially with androgen deprivation therapy.[205] Childhood or pubertal castration results in regression of the prostate and adult castration reverses benign prostate hypertrophy.[206] Although van Kesteren et al.[207] reported that estrogen therapy does not induce hypertrophy or premalignant changes in the prostates of transgender females, studies have reported cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia in transgender females treated with estrogens for 20 to 25 years.[208,209] Studies have also reported a few cases of prostate carcinoma in transgender females.[210–214]

Transgender females may feel uncomfortable scheduling regular prostate examinations. Gynecologists are not trained to screen for prostate cancer or to monitor prostate growth. Thus, it may be reasonable for transgender females who transitioned after age 20 years to have annual screening digital rectal examinations after age 50 years and prostate-specific antigen tests consistent with U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Guidelines.[215]

7. We advise that clinicians determine the medical necessity of including a total hysterectomy and oophorectomy as part of gender-affirming surgery. (Ungraded Good Practice Statement)


Although aromatization of testosterone to estradiol in transgender males has been suggested as a risk factor for endometrial cancer,[216] no cases have been reported. When transgender males undergo hysterectomy, the uterus is small and there is endometrial atrophy.[217,218] Studies have reported cases of ovarian cancer.[219,220] Although there is limited evidence for increased risk of reproductive tract cancers in transgender males, health care providers should determine the medical necessity of a laparoscopic total hysterectomy as part of a genderaffirming surgery to prevent reproductive tract cancer.[221]


Given the discomfort that transgender males experience accessing gynecologic care, our recommendation for the medical necessity of total hysterectomy and oophorectomy places a high value on eliminating the risks of female reproductive tract disease and cancer and a lower value on avoiding the risks of these surgical procedures (related to the surgery and to the potential undesirable health consequences of oophorectomy) and their associated costs.


The sexual orientation and type of sexual practices will determine the need and types of gynecologic care required following transition. Additionally, in certain countries, the approval required to change the sex in a birth certificate for transgender males may be dependent on having a complete hysterectomy. Clinicians should help patients research nonmedical administrative criteria and provide counseling. If individuals decide not to undergo hysterectomy, screening for cervical cancer is the same as all other females.