Abstract and Introduction
Background: Human and animal skin diseases of bacterial, fungal and viral nature and their complications are widespread and globally cause a serious trouble. Their prevalence is increasing mainly due to drug resistance. Consequently, demand has increased for new effective antimicrobial drugs, which also should be less toxic, possess a wider spectrum of action and be economically more beneficial. The goal was to investigate antibacterial, antifungal and anti-phage activity of Petamcin-A-a new multicomponent preparation. It contains acetic acid and hexamethylenetetramine as main active antimicrobial components, as well as phosphatidylcholine, tocopheryl acetate and glycerol as excipients.
Methods: Bacteriostatic activity and minimal inhibitory concentrations of the preparation against various test-organisms were determined by agar well diffusion assay. Antifungal activity was tested by agar dilution assay. To explore anti-phage activity double agar overlay plaque assay was used. Nystatin, chlorhexidine and acetic acid were used as control agents for comparative analysis. Statistical analysis was done with GraphPad Prism 5.03 or R 3.1.0 software.
Results: The results showed a higher activity of Petamcin-A against all bacterial and fungal test strains compared with its components or control agents. The preparation was more effective against tested gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative ones. Petamcin-A expressed bactericidal activity against almost all test strains. In addition, the preparation demonstrated high activity against T4 phage of Escherichia coli C-T4 completely inhibiting its growth. 5-fold diluted Petamcin-A also exhibited considerable activity reducing phage concentration by 2.6 Log10.
Conclusions: Petamcin-A has a high antimicrobial activity against all tested strains of bacteria, yeasts and moulds. The preparation also exhibited high anti-phage activity. Moreover, taking into account that Petamcin-A has no observable toxicity on skin and its components are not expensive, it can be advantageous for management of various skin medical conditions.
The prevalence of bacterial, fungal and viral skin infectious diseases and their complications are continuously increasing throughout the world. Because of the limited number of therapeutic methods this problem is one of the most urgent challenges in biology and medicine.[1–3] The frequency of these diseases is particularly higher in developing countries, mainly due to lower level of their healthcare systems as well as inability of many patients to receive expensive treatment for a long period of time. Treatment difficulties of these diseases mainly are a consequence of acquired resistance development by microorganisms towards commonly used drugs.[5–8] Therefore, it is not a coincidence, that 21th century is considered as post-antibiotic era in order to highlight importance of the problem. Another serious challenge of the field is the acquisition of pathogenicity by microorganisms previously considered as non-pathogenic, which could happen due to various mutations, increasing number of immune-compromised patients, etc.. Hence, the development of new, more efficient drugs is of utmost importance. On the other hand, it is essential to create economically more beneficial antimicrobials affordable for a population living in poor regions. Another criterion of new antimicrobials is a wide spectrum of action, considering the fact that many skin infections are caused by various microbial associations.
Both topical and systemic antimicrobial agents could be used for treatment of skin infections depending on various conditions (infection stage, size of infected area, type of pathogens, depth of infections, etc.). Both of them have their advantages and disadvantages.[12,13] Particularly, topical antimicrobials help to avoid systemic toxicity and side effects as well as to decrease the possibility of resistance acquisition. Moreover, they allow to apply high concentration of antimicrobials directly on the zone of infection. The main disadvantage of topical agents is a difficulty to supply active agents to affected area, especially during deep skin infections.[12,13]
The object of this study was the multi-component liquid preparation Petamcin-A, which was developed and patented as topical antifungal agent. Preparation contains acetic acid, hexamethylenetetramine, phosphatidylcholine, tocopheryl acetate and glycerol. It has been successfully used during recent years for treatment of skin fungal diseases. This preparation does not have any noticeable toxicity and does not express any side effects.[14,15] According to the preliminary data, under the influence of this preparation, statistically significant normalization of cytotoxic and membranolytic lysophosphatides and phospholipase A2 activity are observed at experimental animals. This testifies about Petamin-A's membrane stabilizing properties. The preparation also expresses antioxidant activity which is partially connected with its phosphatidylcholine and tocopheryl acetate components. As it was shown, the preparation promotes fast purification of the leukocytic and necrotic mass of the wound, suppresses the activity of inflammatory reactions, stimulates cellular proliferation, and promotes the growth of connective tissue and regeneration of wound epithelium.
Two components of Petamcin-A-acetic acid and hexamethylenetetramine are responsible for its antimicrobial activity. Apart from antifungal activity, these compounds also possess antibacterial and antiviral activity and separately have been used for some applications.[16,17]
The main purpose of this study was to investigate antibacterial, antifungal and anti-phage properties of Petamcin-A. The obtained results could serve as a basis to develop its production for skin diseases treatment.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2015;14(28) © 2015 BioMed Central, Ltd.