The explosion of robotic surgery, which uses smaller incisions made with miniature instruments, now makes it possible for fewer medical personnel to conduct localized surgeries at a considerably lower cost than open-chest or open-abdominal surgery. In special circumstances, when a particular specialist is not locally available, such surgeries can even be conducted remotely by computer control. In addition, high risk surgeries for cancer of the esophagus, pancreas, lung, and bladder, as well as coronary artery bypass graft, heart valve, and vascular surgeries have become the specialties of a few, select hospitals in the United States, where they are conducted with much better and safer results and, thus, at lower cost.
J Community Health. 2012;37(4):888-896. © 2012 Springer
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