Should We Screen Preterm Infants for Nephrocalcinosis? An Evidence-based Decision

Shahirose S Premji; Majeeda Kamaluddeen


Pediatr Health. 2010;4(1):24-35. 

In This Article

Criteria for Considering Studies for this Article

Medline (from 1950 to August 2009) was searched using the following medical subject headings (MeSH) or text words: nephrocalcinosis, renal calcification, hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, citrate, citrate therapy and ultrasonography. Searches were limited using terms such as: newborn; infant, newborn; infant, premature; infant, low birth weight (LBW); human and English. The Cochrane systematic reviews and Cochrane central register of controlled trials, dating to the third quarter of 2009 were also searched. All phases of trials including randomized trials, quasi-randomized trials, observational studies and review articles were included. Given the limited information on treatment and management of long-term consequences of nephrocalcinosis (e.g., nephrolithiasis), relevant articles from the pediatric literature were included. Reference lists of all relevant published journals were reviewed to identify other research articles. The websites of the American Academy of Pediatrics and Canadian Pediatric Society were searched to supplement the search strategy; however, no new information was retrieved. Searches were uploaded into a reference manager program (i.e., EndNote). One of the reviewers (Shahirose Premji) selected the literature for this review, which was then synthesized in collaboration with the second reviewer (Majeeda Kamaluddeen). Data were extracted to attend to each of the WHO criteria identified and judgments made with regard to whether the criteria were met (Table 1). The levels of evidence guiding the judgment were determined using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine level of evidence guidelines (Table 2).


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