Contemporary Clinical Management of Atrial Septal Defects in the Adult

Gianluca Rigatelli; Paolo Cardaioli; Ziyad M Hijazi


Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2007;5(6):1135-1146. 

In This Article

Expert Commentary

Current studies suggest that unless there is pulmonary vascular disease, innovative imaging techniques and mini-invasive therapeutical options can be offered to patients irrespective of age.

Randomized studies are still required to asses both the long-term (15-20 years) results of device closure in respect of late complications, such as aortic wall erosion and corrosive behavior of metal implants, and the economic advantages of this therapy compared with standard or minimally invasive surgical approach.