Contemporary Clinical Management of Atrial Septal Defects in the Adult

Gianluca Rigatelli; Paolo Cardaioli; Ziyad M Hijazi


Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2007;5(6):1135-1146. 

In This Article

Evidence Acquisition

A Medline search using both OVID and PubMed was performed by searching for literature in English regarding randomized trials, prospective cohort studies, meta-analysis, review and practice guidelines about different aspects of ASD in adults between 2000-2006; search key words were ASD matched with genetics, pathophysiology, noninvasive diagnosis, surgical or percutaneous treatments, follow-up, pregnancy and insurance. Search limit is adult age. Additional reference material was obtained from the proceedings of relevant conferences on adult congenital heart disease. A systematic review of the following journals was also performed for relevant reports on adult ASD management: JAMA, New England Journal of Medicine, Cardiology in the Young, Pediatric Cardiology, Journal of American College of Cardiology, American Journal of Cardiology, Clinical Cardiology, International Journal of Cardiology, Journal of Invasive Cardiology, Journal of Interventional Cardiology, Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions, Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. In more recent reports, emphasis was placed in particular on systematic reviews, meta-analysis and practice guidelines. The quality of the retrieved papers was assessed by the authors in terms of study design (prospective studies were preferred), patient number (articles reporting >50 patients were preferred), journals' impact factors (articles with impact factor >1.5 were preferred), innovative contents.