Vascular Myelopathies - Vascular Malformations of the Spinal Cord: Presentation and Endovascular Surgical Management

Louis P. Caragine, Jr., MD, PhD, Van V. Halbach, MD, Perry P. Ng, MD, Christopher F. Dowd, MD


Semin Neurol. 2002;22(2) 

In This Article

Paravertebral Arteriovenous Malformations

Paravertebral AVMs exhibit intercostal, paramedian, extraspinal, and even medullary venous drainage. Complete spinal angiography demonstrates the extension of the malformation through the nerve root foramina and rules out the possibility of an association with an intramedullary AVM. This category includes extra- and intraspinal single hole fistulas, the presence of a well-defined AVM nidus, or a combination of both.[22] Endovascular embolization may be achieved with NBCA liquid adhesive and should be attempted first. Particle embolization may be used if open surgery is planned.