Hospital-acquired Pneumonia and Ventilator-associated Pneumonia

Recent Advances in Epidemiology and Management

François Barbier; Antoine Andremont; Michel Wolff; Lila Bouadma


Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2013;19(3):216-228. 

In This Article


An increasing burden of HAP/VAP may be expected in the coming years, as a result of intensification of care, progressive ageing and a growing prevalence of severe underlying diseases in ICU patients. The current epidemiology of bacterial resistance is more alarming than ever. In this context, the implementation of preventive policies is of major importance.[17] Both diagnosis and treatment of HAP/VAP remain challenging and justify intensive research work for the development and validation of molecular diagnostic tools, new drugs for MDR pathogens, and nonantibiotic therapeutic options.