What are the types of pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI)?

Updated: Mar 19, 2019
  • Author: Donna J Fisher, MD; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD  more...
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The 2 broad clinical categories of UTI are pyelonephritis (upper UTI) and cystitis (lower UTI). The most common causative organisms are bowel flora, typically gram-negative rods. Escherichia coli is the organism that is most commonly isolated from pediatric patients with UTIs. However, other organisms that gain access to the urinary tract may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species) and viruses. (See Pathophysiology and Etiology.)

The febrile infant or child who has no other site of infection to explain the fever, even in the absence of systemic symptoms, should be assessed for the likelihood of pyelonephritis (upper UTI). Most episodes of UTI during the first year of life are pyelonephritis. (See DDx.)

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