What is the role of skin scrapings in the workup of herpes simplex virus (HSV)?

Updated: Feb 27, 2019
  • Author: J Michael Klatte, MD; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD  more...
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Answer

Obtain scrapings of skin vesicles and mucosal lesions and expeditiously transfer them in appropriate viral-transport media to a diagnostic virology laboratory. A cytopathic effect usually develops within 24-48 hours after inoculation of any specimens containing infectious virus. Culture sensitivity may be improved with low-speed centrifugation or ultracentrifugation of the sample directly onto monolayers in centrifuge tubes (shell vials). Immunofluorescent staining of infected tissue culture cells helps in quickly identifying herpes simplex virus as being type 1 or 2.

A skin scraping of the lesion may reveal histologic appearances characteristic of herpesvirus infection, such as multinucleated giant cells and epithelial cells containing intranuclear inclusion bodies. Punch biopsy can provide optimal tissue for histologic diagnosis of a herpesvirus infection, particularly with atypical-appearing lesions.


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