What role do environmental factors play in the etiology of pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

Updated: Sep 09, 2021
  • Author: Maggie A Wilkes, MD; Chief Editor: Caroly Pataki, MD  more...
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No environmental causes have been clearly identified. However, problems with pregnancy (including cigarette smoking during pregnancy) and/or delivery, head injuries, toxin exposure, heavy marijuana use beginning in early adolescence, marital or family dysfunction, and low social class have all been associated with ADHD (ADD).

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