Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Medical Treatment for Acute Sinusitis?

Updated: Apr 22, 2020
  • Author: Ted L Tewfik, MD; Chief Editor: Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA  more...
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Answer

Antibiotics

Therapy must be comprehensive and cover all likely pathogens in the context of this clinical setting.

Amoxicillin (Trimox, Amoxil, Biomox)

First-line antibiotic. Interferes with synthesis of cell wall mucopeptides during active multiplication, resulting in bactericidal activity against susceptible bacteria.

Cefdinir (Omnicef)

Classified as a third-generation cephalosporin and inhibits mucopeptide synthesis in the bacterial cell wall. Typically bactericidal, depending on organism susceptibility, dose, and serum or tissue concentrations.

Clarithromycin (Biaxin)

First-line antibiotic. Inhibits bacterial growth, possibly by blocking dissociation of peptidyl tRNA from ribosomes, causing RNA-dependent protein synthesis to arrest.

Cefuroxime (Ceftin, Kefurox, Zinacef)

Second-line PO and first-line IV antibiotic. Maintains gram-positive activity that first-generation cephalosporins have; adds activity against P mirabilis, H influenzae, E coli, K pneumoniae, and M catarrhalis.

Condition of patient, severity of infection, and susceptibility of microorganism determine proper dose and route of administration.

Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)

Third-generation cephalosporin with broad-spectrum, gram-negative activity; lower efficacy against gram-positive organisms; higher efficacy against resistant organisms. Arrests bacterial growth by binding to one or more penicillin binding proteins. Has good penetration.

Vancomycin (Vancocin, Lyphocin, Vancoled)

Potent antibiotic directed against gram-positive organisms and active against Enterococcus species. Useful in the treatment of septicemia and skin structure infections. Indicated for patients who cannot receive or have failed to respond to penicillins and cephalosporins or who have infections with resistant staphylococci. For abdominal penetrating injuries, it is combined with an agent active against enteric flora and/or anaerobes.

To avoid toxicity, current recommendation is to assay vancomycin trough levels after third dose drawn 0.5 h prior to next dosing. Use CrCl to adjust dose in patients diagnosed with renal impairment.

Used in conjunction with gentamicin for prophylaxis in penicillin-allergic patients undergoing gastrointestinal or genitourinary procedures. Effective for resistant S pneumoniae.

Amoxicillin/Clavulanate (Augmentin)

Drug combination treats bacteria resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics.


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