Other than bacteria, what causes TM inflammation in myringitis?

Updated: Sep 14, 2020
  • Author: John Schweinfurth, MD; Chief Editor: Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA  more...
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Other causes include the following:

  • Fungal infection

  • Viral infection (eg, herpes zoster, influenza)

  • Eczematous otitis externa, which can cause eczematous myringitis

  • Granulation tissue covering the TM

  • Extra-esophageal reflux [3]

  • Chronic myringitis, which is often accompanied by chronic inflammation of the middle ear or the EAC (Chronic myringitis is often mistaken for chronic otitis media. Such confusion prolongs the initiation of appropriate management and sometimes leads to needless tympanomastoid surgery. The ENT specialist should be aware of this clinical entity and its varied presentation.)

  • Chronic inflammation of the TM with perforation, which may also occur as a result of a condition developing at the junction between the skin and the mucous membrane (Retraction of the TM is clinically important because failure to do so is a possible cause of atelectasis, ossicular erosion, and cholesteatoma.)

For more information, see Otitis Media, External Ear, Infections, External Ear, Malignant External Otitis, and External Ear, Inflammatory Diseases.

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