What causes primary myringitis?

Updated: Sep 14, 2020
  • Author: John Schweinfurth, MD; Chief Editor: Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA  more...
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See the list below:

  • Acute myringitis can occur because of direct trauma to the TM through penetration by a foreign body.

  • Primary myringitis may also be caused by unsuccessful removal of a foreign body, such as a live insect, or it may occur during self-cleaning of the ear.

  • An explosion, a change in the pressure in an airplane cabin, a blow to the ear with the palm, or even a kiss in the ear can cause trauma to the TM.

  • Acute bullous myringitis can be the consequence of a bacterial infection such as Streptococcus pneumoniae or a viral infection such as influenza, herpes zoster, or others. [1]

  • Acute hemorrhagic myringitis can also be the consequence of a bacterial or a viral infection. [2]

  • Fungal myringitis can be the consequence of a fungal infection of the TM's epidermis.

  • Eczematous myringitis can occur in cases of dermal eczema of the TM's epidermis.

  • Myringitis granulosa occurs when the TM is covered with granulation tissue. The causes of this destruction of the TM's epidermis are rarely clear, except when a similar case is demonstrated during a myringoplasty, when the epidermis perishes, or when the mucosa, expanding from a tympanic membrane perforation, erases an epidermis.

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