What is the prehospital care for caustic ingestions?

Updated: Dec 09, 2020
  • Author: Derrick Lung, MD, MPH, FACEP, FACMT; Chief Editor: David Vearrier, MD, MPH  more...
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Attempt to identify the specific product, concentration of active ingredients, and estimated volume and amount ingested. Obtain MSDS sheets when possible for workplace exposures. The product container or labels may be available. Avoid exposure to health care workers.

Do not induce emesis or attempt to neutralize the substance by using a weak acid or base. This induces an exothermic reaction, which can compound the chemical injury with a thermal injury. It may also induce emesis, re-exposing tissue to the caustic agent.

Small amounts of a diluent may be beneficial if administered as soon as possible after a solid or granular alkaline ingestion, to remove any particles that are adhering to the oral or esophageal mucosa. Water or milk may be administered in small amounts. It is very unlikely to be of any benefit after more than 30 minutes. This practice is controversial: Some of the literature available on this topic discourages the use of diluents because of the concern of inducing emesis resulting in re-exposure of tissue to caustic agent.

Diluents should not be used with any acid ingestion or liquid alkaline ingestion, as it could provoke vomiting. The resulting re-exposure of the oral or esophageal mucosa to the offending substance could worsen the injury or lead to perforation.

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