What is included in the ED investigation and treatment of exacerbation of myasthenia gravis?

Updated: Sep 20, 2018
  • Author: William D Goldenberg, MD; Chief Editor: Andrew K Chang, MD, MS  more...
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Answer

Answer

Once the airway is secured, investigation into the cause of the exacerbation of myasthenia gravis may proceed, with the most common reason for an exacerbation being infection, followed by inadequate treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors. However, up to 30% of patients will not have an identified cause of their exacerbation. [5] Differentiation from cholinergic crisis can proceed as described above.

In less severely ill patients, oral pyridostigmine can be administered until clinical improvement is seen. The patient should be closely observed and monitored during this trial. Other reasons for the exacerbation can then be investigated.

Although patients with myasthenia gravis can develop any common infection that can result in decompensation, the most likely source of infection is pulmonary. Cultures of blood, sputum, and urine may be indicated on an individual basis. Chest radiography is important in detecting pneumonia. Appropriate broad-spectrum antibiotics are indicated for sepsis and pneumonia. It is important to consider that fluoroquinolones and antibiotics may adversely affect cholinergic transmission in patients with myasthenia gravis, and these antibiotics should be avoided if possible.

Patients with myasthenia gravis are sensitive to high temperatures (core or ambient), and their muscle strength can improve when temperature is lowered with cooling measures or antipyretics.


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