Which conditions are associated with encephalitis?

Updated: Aug 07, 2018
  • Author: David S Howes, MD; Chief Editor: Barry E Brenner, MD, PhD, FACEP  more...
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The relatively common acute arboviral encephalitides vary widely in epidemiology, mortality, morbidity, and clinical presentation, and no satisfactory treatment exists for these infections. However, attempts to distinguish these acute arboviral encephalitides from the treatable acute viral encephalitides due to herpes simplex or varicella are important.

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), which occurs sporadically in healthy and immune-compromised adults is also encountered in neonates infected at birth during vaginal delivery and is potentially lethal if not treated. Varicella-zoster virus encephalitis (VZVE) is life threatening in immune-compromised patients. Swift identification and immediate treatment of HSE or VZVE can be lifesaving. From a risk-benefit standpoint, most authorities recommend initiating ED treatment with acyclovir in any patient whose central nervous system (CNS) presentation is suggestive of viral encephalitis, especially in the presence of fever, encephalopathy, or focal findings, and in all neonates who appear ill for whom a CNS infection is being considered.

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