What are the neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of giant cell arteritis (GCA) (temporal arteritis)?

Updated: Sep 10, 2020
  • Author: Mythili Seetharaman, MD; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
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Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations [74] of GCA include the following:

  • Diplopia
  • Ptosis [75]
  • Nystagmus
  • Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) [76]
  • Pupillary abnormalities [77]

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