Is giant cell arteritis (GCA) (temporal arteritis) a uniform disease?

Updated: Sep 10, 2020
  • Author: Mythili Seetharaman, MD; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
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Numerous studies now suggest that GCA consists of various clinical subsets rather than one uniform disease. Variable expression of different cytokine profiles likely determines the clinical manifestations. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and, more recently, interleukin 6, have been recognized to  play a major role in the pathophysiology of temporal arteritis. [22]

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