Which autoimmune findings suggest Sjögren syndrome?

Updated: Mar 05, 2021
  • Author: Sriya K Ranatunga, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
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Answer

Patients with primary Sjögren syndrome may have positive test results for lupus anticoagulant and/or anticardiolipin antibodies, and some patients develop clinical events (ie, fetal wastage, arterial and/or venous thrombosis) associated with antiphospholipid syndrome. Anti ̶ salivary duct antibodies are present in most cases of secondary Sjögren syndrome.

Type II cryoglobulins are noted, particularly in patients with palpable and nonpalpable vasculitic purpura. Hepatitis C should be sought in these patients.

In some studies, patients with Sjögren syndrome have an increased frequency of autoimmune thyroid disease with hypothyroidism (10-15%). Lymphocytic i)nfiltration can be observed in the thyroid gland.

Elevations of serum immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4), found in IgG4-related plasmacytic disease (which can mimic the glandular infiltrations of Sjögren syndrome), are not seen in Sjögren syndrome. [66, 67]

Antibodies to carbonic anhydrase 11 can be seen in patients with Sjögren syndrome who have primary billiary cirrhosis. [60]


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