What are the neurologic symptoms of Sjögren syndrome?

Updated: Mar 05, 2021
  • Author: Sriya K Ranatunga, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD  more...
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Answer

The occurrence of central nervous system (CNS) and spinal cord involvement in Sjögren syndrome is estimated by various studies to be 8-40%, with manifestations including myelopathy, optic neuropathy, seizures, cognitive dysfunction, and encephalopathy. [25, 43, 44] Attempts must be made to distinguish other causes of these symptoms, including concomitant SLE, multiple sclerosis, cerebrovascular disease, and Alzheimer disease.

Sensory, motor, or sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, often subclinical, can be detected in up to 55% of unselected patients with Sjögren syndrome. [45] Symptoms of distal paresthesias may be present. Cranial neuropathies can develop, particularly trigeminal neuropathy or facial nerve palsy. Mononeuritis multiplex should prompt a search for a vasculitis.

Progressive weakness and paralysis secondary to hypokalemia due to underlying renal tubular acidosis can occur and is potentially treatable. [46]


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