What are the endocrine manifestations of sarcoidosis?

Updated: Sep 15, 2020
  • Author: Nader Kamangar, MD, FACP, FCCP, FCCM; Chief Editor: Zab Mosenifar, MD, FACP, FCCP  more...
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Answer

Diabetes insipidus is the most frequently reported endocrine disorder, followed by hyperprolactinemia. Hormonal deficiencies associated with hypothalamic-pituitary sarcoidosis frequently include hypogonadism and diabetes insipidus. [38]

The enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1α-hydroxylase (1α-hydroxylase) catalyzes the conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to the active hormone calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3). Under normal circumstances, calcitriol is synthesized in proximal renal tubules. Expression of 1 α-hydroxylase has been demonstrated in purified human alveolar macrophages. In one study, the 1 α-hydroxylase mRNA levels in bronchoalveolar lavage cells were 5-fold higher in sarcoidosis patients than in control patients. [39]


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