How are extrinsic lung disorders treated in restrictive lung disease?

Updated: Sep 16, 2020
  • Author: Jonathan Robert Caronia, DO; Chief Editor: John J Oppenheimer, MD  more...
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Answer

Patients with nonmuscular chest wall disorders and neuromuscular disease may develop problems with ventilation and gas exchange during sleep. The effect of decreased chest wall and lung compliance or decreased muscle strength is hypercapnia and hypoxemia, which occurs initially during sleep. Identify and treat the cause of muscle weakness.

Treatment of neuromuscular diseases includes preventive therapies to minimize the impact of impaired secretion clearance and the prevention and prompt treatment of respiratory infections.

Patients who develop respiratory failure or have severe gas exchange abnormalities during sleep may be treated with noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation via a nasal or oronasal mask. Patients in whom these devices fail may require a permanent tracheotomy and ventilator assistance with a portable ventilator. [64]

Noninvasive ventilation with body-wrap ventilators or positive-pressure ventilation has been proven beneficial because it helps relieve dyspnea and pulmonary hypertension and helps improve RV and gas exchange. Also, hospitalization rates are markedly reduced and the activities of daily living are enhanced. [65]

Treatment for massive obesity consists of weight loss, which causes dramatic improvement in pulmonary function test findings but is harder to achieve. These patients require polysomnographic study because of the high incidence of nocturnal hypoventilation or upper airway obstructions. Either continuous positive airway pressure or noninvasive pressure ventilation helps correct hypoventilation and upper airway obstruction.

In advanced disease, when respiratory failure develops, these patients are treated with mechanical ventilation. If they have copious secretions, cannot control their upper airway, or are not cooperative, then invasive ventilation with a tracheotomy tube is indicated. In other patients, eg, those who have good airway control and minimal secretions, use noninvasive ventilation, initially nocturnal, and then intermittently.


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