Which occupations increase the risk for fungal pneumonia?

Updated: Jun 21, 2019
  • Author: Romeo A Mandanas, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Guy W Soo Hoo, MD, MPH  more...
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Workers or farmers with heavy exposure to bird, bat, or rodent droppings or other animal excreta in endemic areas are predisposed to any of the endemic fungal pneumonias, such as histoplasmosis, in which the environmental exposure to avian or bat feces encourages the growth of the organism. In addition, farmers, nursery workers, landscapers, and gardeners are at higher risk of acquiring sporotrichosis because of their chance of cuts or puncture wounds while working with soil.The Pseudoallescheria boydii/Scedosporium apiospermum complex has been implicated as an important pathogen in delayed disseminated infections among victims of near-drowning in polluted waters [6] or recent natural disasters such as the Indonesian tsunami in 2004. [7]

Coccidioides species are dimorphic existing as mold in the environments and as spherules in vivo. Arthroconidia in mold state are easily dispersed and inhaled into the lungs. [5] Therefore, because of its high virulence, it is also a threat among laboratory personnel working with this fungus. [5]

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