What is the role of environmental factors in the pathogenesis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

Updated: Oct 01, 2019
  • Author: Stephen Soreff, MD; Chief Editor: Glen L Xiong, MD  more...
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How much of a role family environment has in the pathogenesis of ADHD is unclear, but it certainly may exacerbate symptoms.

According to one study, exposure to second-hand smoke in the home is associated with a higher frequency of mental disorder among children. Researchers undertook a cross-sectional study of 2357 children representative of the Spanish population aged 4-12 years in 2011-2012. Results showed that children exposed to ≥1 h/day of second-hand smoke had a multivariate odds ratio for ADHD of 3.14 compared to an odds ratio of 2.18 for children not habitually exposed to second-hand smoke. [28]

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