Which genes are linked to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

Updated: Oct 01, 2019
  • Author: Stephen Soreff, MD; Chief Editor: Glen L Xiong, MD  more...
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Answer

The involved genes or chromosomes are not definitively known. Vulnerability to ADHD may be due to many genes of small effect. For example, several genes that code for dopamine receptors or serotonin products, including DRD4, DRD5, DAT, DBH, 5-HTT, and 5-HTR1B, have been moderately associated with ADHD.

ADHD risk is significantly increased in the presence of 1 risk allele in genes DRD2 (OR=7,5), 5-HTT (OR=2,7), and DAT1 (OR=1,6). ADHD risk is significantly increased at homozygotes for risk alleles in genes DRD2 (OR=54,8), 5-HTT (OR=6,7), and DAT1 (OR=6,6). [25] Another study implicated the following gene coding for ADHD: DRD4, DRD5, SLC6A3, SNAP-25, and HTR1B. [26]

Studies of cognitive deficits reveal another facet to the genetic contributions to ADHD. [27]


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