What are the clinical manifestations of menopause?

Updated: Jun 06, 2018
  • Author: PonJola Coney, MD; Chief Editor: Richard Scott Lucidi, MD, FACOG  more...
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Clinical effects

During the menopausal transition, physiologic changes in responsiveness to gonadotropins and their secretions occur, with wide variations in hormone levels. Women often experience a range of symptoms, including the following:

  • Hot flashes or flushes (most common)

  • Insomnia

  • Weight gain and bloating

  • Mood changes

  • Irregular menses

  • Mastodynia

  • Depression

  • Headache

The temporal pattern of symptoms is as follows:

  • Symptoms may begin up to 6 years before the final menstrual period and continue for a variable number of years after the final menstrual period [1, 2, 3]

  • As the postmenopause years progress, with an accompanying loss of ovarian response to gonadotropins, associated affective symptoms of menopause also decline

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