What are granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovaries?

Updated: Aug 30, 2018
  • Author: David C Starks, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Warner K Huh, MD  more...
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Answer

Three major types of ovarian neoplasms are described, with epithelial cell tumors (>70%) comprising the largest group of tumors. Germ cell tumors occur less frequently (20%), while sex cord–stromal tumors make up the smallest proportion, accounting for approximately 8% of all ovarian neoplasms.

Granulosa-theca cell tumors, more commonly known as granulosa cell tumors (GCTs), belong to the sex cord–stromal category and include tumors composed of granulosa cells, theca cells, and fibroblasts in varying degrees and combinations. GCTs account for approximately 2% of all ovarian tumors and can be divided into adult (95%) and juvenile (5%) types based on histologic findings.

Both subtypes commonly produce estrogen, and estrogen production often is the reason for early diagnosis. However, while adult GCTs (AGCTs) usually occur in postmenopausal women and have late recurrences, most juvenile GCTs (JGCTs) develop in individuals younger than 30 years and often recur within the first 3 years. Theca cell tumors almost always are benign and carry an excellent prognosis. The rare malignant thecoma likely represents a tumor with a small admixture of granulosa cells. For this reason, the remainder of the article focuses on GCTs, except where indicated.

Recognition of the signs and symptoms of abnormal hormone production and consideration of these tumors in the differential diagnosis of an adnexal mass can allow for early identification, timely surgical management, and excellent cure rates. Despite the good overall prognosis, long-term follow-up always is required in patients with GCTs. [1]


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