What is the pathophysiology of pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Updated: Oct 10, 2021
  • Author: Ayesha Mirza, MD; Chief Editor: David J Cennimo, MD, FAAP, FACP, FIDSA, AAHIVS  more...
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Answer

Answer

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) infection is characterized by an initial cytokine storm that can result in acute respiratory distress syndrome and macrophage activation syndrome. This initial phase is then followed by a period of immune dysregulation, which is the major cause of sepsis-related fatalities. [11]

While we are learning more about SARS-CoV-2 infection almost daily, differences between adult and pediatric disease are likely the result of changes within both immune function and the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 receptor, used by the virus to enter type II pneumocytes in the lung. Decreases in ACE-2 seen in animal models of aging result in changes in neutrophil influx and resultant lung injury. Thus, immunosenescence and changes in inflammatory responses with age likely account for the different spectrum and severity of disease in children versus adults and, furthermore, in neonates versus older children. The profound lymphopenia seen in patients with COVID-19 is likely the result of T lymphocyte infection and death that occurs as SARS CoV-2 infects these cells. [12]


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