How does the pacing modes affect perioperative management of permanent pacemakers (PPMs) and automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (AICDs)?

Updated: Oct 29, 2018
  • Author: Albert H Tsai, MD; Chief Editor: Sheela Pai Cole, MD  more...
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An understanding of the mode to which the CIED is set not only provides valuable information regarding the patient’s native conduction system but also facilitates perioperative management. For example, a PPM set to AAI suggests that conduction through the AV node remains intact, whereas a PPM set to VVI suggests a conduction defect at the AV node. A device set to DDD may suggest a partial AV nodal defect but is indicative of the presence of a dual-chamber CIED.

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