What is included in the anesthetic plan for perioperative management of permanent pacemakers (PPMs) and automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (AICDs)?

Updated: Oct 29, 2018
  • Author: Albert H Tsai, MD; Chief Editor: Sheela Pai Cole, MD  more...
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Pacemaker technologies, the patient comorbidities that warrant their use, and various perioperative variables make the anesthetic management of patients with CIEDs a remarkably complex subject with significant potential for perioperative complications. However, employment of a systematic approach to understanding the patient’s underlying pathology, the characteristics of the device type, perioperative factors, and appropriate interventions will facilitate the development of a safe and effective anesthetic plan for monitoring, diagnosing, and treating potential complications.

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