When is immediate urologic referral indicated for pediatric acute pyelonephritis (kidney infection)?

Updated: Jul 01, 2021
  • Author: Tibor Fulop, MD, PhD, FACP, FASN; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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In pediatric patients with acute pyelonephritis, indications for immediate urologic referral include the following:

  • Abnormal electrolyte values associated with acidosis
  • Elevated blood urea nitrogen level
  • Hypertension
  • A palpable bladder
  • Voiding difficulty (dribbling, poor stream, straining)

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