Which history increases the risk of complicated pyelonephritis (kidney infection)?

Updated: Jul 01, 2021
  • Author: Tibor Fulop, MD, PhD, FACP, FASN; Chief Editor: Vecihi Batuman, MD, FASN  more...
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A history of the following indicates an increased risk of complicated pyelonephritis:

  • Structural abnormalities of the urinary tract
  • Functional abnormalities of the urinary tract
  • Metabolic abnormalities predisposing to UTIs
  • Recent antibiotic use
  • Recent urinary tract instrumentation

The presence of any one of the above complicating factors should raise the clinician’s index of suspicion. In many instances, more than one complicating factor is involved. In addition, if the patient is male, elderly, or a child or has had symptoms for more than 7 days, the infection should be considered complicated until proven otherwise.

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